B2 Summary AQA-Highly Recommend-

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What are animals and plants built from?
feature function
nucleus controls cell
accept contains genetic material or genes or chromosomesorstores information
do not credit the brain of the cell
cytoplasm where respiration occurs
accept contains food ormitochondria
orreactions occurs
membrane lets water or chemicals in and orout
accept surrounds the cell or lets some things in but not others
do not credit keeps things out or protection
mitochondria where energy released
ribosomes where protein synthesis
Cell Wall Holds cell's shape
Vacuole stores cell sap
Chloroplast contains chlorophyll which absorbs light energy
Specialised Cells
White Blood Cell
· fight or ingestor kill bacteriaor germs or virusesor microbes
accept produce antitoxins or antibodies fight disease (organisms)
do not credit fungus
Red Blood Cell
· (transport) oxygen or carry haemoglobin
accept transport carbon dioxide or helps form scabs
Palisade Mesophyll Cell
· has lots of chlorophyll/chloroplasts
· to absorb light/produce food
· long tail
· streamlined head

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Differences between Plant and Animal Cells
Plant cell Animal cell
(has) vacuole orhas cell sap no vacuole orsmall /
temporary vacuole
orno cell sap
(has) wall/ cellulose no wall / cellulose
(stores) starch ordoesn't store doesn't store / have glycogen
orstores glycogen
How do dissolved substances get into and out of cells?
· movement of particles
· from high concentration to low concentration
Dissolved substances move by diffusion transport.
Substances are sometimes absorbed against a concentration gradient.…read more

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In plants:
­ carbon dioxide enters leaf cells by diffusion
­ most of the water and mineral ions are absorbed by root hair cells.
The surface area of the roots is increased by root hairs and the surface area of leaves by the
flattened shape and internal air spaces.
Plants have stomata to obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Plants lose water vapour from the surface of their leaves. This loss of water vapour is called
transpiration.…read more

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· (light) of asuitable wavelength
· Temperature (enzyme action)
· Concentration of CO2
· Availability of water
Factors in Greenhouse that can maximise output
· provide (more) light
· provide (more) CO2
· provide (plenty of) water
· increase temperature
· if any one of these is low it will limit the reaction
Photosynthesis is summarised by the equation:
carbon dioxide + water (+ light energy) glucose + oxygen
Uses of glucose:
· stored as fructose
· stored as sucrose
· stored as starch
·…read more

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What are enzymes and what are some of their functions?
What is an enzyme
· biological catalyst
accept protein catalyst
What do they do?
· speed up reactions
· bring about reactions at lower temperatures
· lower pressures
· less expensive process
How do they work?
· particles / they gain energy
· particles / they move faster
· accept move more violently
ignore vibrate faster orstart to move
only or more active
do not accept move more
· collide more often ormore collisions ormore…read more

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­ reverse argument
· cannot be absorbed or cannot enter blood or cannot pass through wall / lining of
intestine / gut or villi
"body" not enough
not large intestine
Carbohydrate Digestion
· digested / broken down / made soluble
· by carbohydrase / amylase / enzyme
· in mouth / in small intestine / from salivary galnds / from pancreas
· into glucose
· glucose/smaller molecules/products of digestion absorbed into blood
Protein Digestion
· digested / broken down / made soluble
· by protease…read more

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· emulsifies fats/lipids or description of emulsification
do not accept breakdown unqualified
· larger surface area
Biological detergents
· protein-digesting enzymes (proteases)
· fat-digesting enzymes (lipases).…read more

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· glucose decomposes / breaks down / reacts
· CO2 + water
· (quick) source of energy
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
Energy used to:
· build up larger molecules using smaller ones
· enable muscles to contract
· maintain a steady body temperature in colder surroundings
· build up sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids
· which are then built up into proteins.
The energy that is released during respiration is used to enable muscles to contract.…read more

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If muscles are subjected to long periods of vigorous activity they become fatigued, ie they stop
contracting efficiently. If insufficient oxygen is reaching the muscles they use anaerobic
respiration to obtain energy.…read more

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· during growth or to produce replacement cells.…read more


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