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What are animals and plants built from?
feature function
nucleus controls cell
accept contains genetic material or genes or chromosomesorstores information
do not credit the brain of the cell
cytoplasm where respiration occurs
accept contains food ormitochondria
orreactions occurs
membrane lets water or chemicals in and orout
accept surrounds the…

Page 2

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Differences between Plant and Animal Cells
Plant cell Animal cell
(has) vacuole orhas cell sap no vacuole orsmall /
temporary vacuole
orno cell sap
(has) wall/ cellulose no wall / cellulose
oronly
membrane
(stores) starch ordoesn't store doesn't store / have glycogen
starch
orstores glycogen

How do dissolved substances get…

Page 3

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In plants:
­ carbon dioxide enters leaf cells by diffusion
­ most of the water and mineral ions are absorbed by root hair cells.

The surface area of the roots is increased by root hairs and the surface area of leaves by the
flattened shape and internal air spaces.

Plants…

Page 4

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· (sufficient) light (intensity)
· (light) of asuitable wavelength
· Temperature (enzyme action)
· Concentration of CO2
· Availability of water

Factors in Greenhouse that can maximise output
· provide (more) light
· provide (more) CO2
· provide (plenty of) water
· increase temperature
· if any one of these…

Page 5

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What are enzymes and what are some of their functions?
What is an enzyme
· biological catalyst
accept protein catalyst
What do they do?
· speed up reactions
· bring about reactions at lower temperatures
· lower pressures
· less expensive process


How do they work?
· particles / they…

Page 6

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accept `need to make molecules
smaller / soluble' ­ reverse argument


· cannot be absorbed or cannot enter blood or cannot pass through wall / lining of
intestine / gut or villi
"body" not enough
not large intestine

Carbohydrate Digestion
· digested / broken down / made soluble
· by…

Page 7

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· enzymes (in small intestine) work (more/most effectively) or stop/prevents
enzymes being denatured
· emulsifies fats/lipids or description of emulsification
do not accept breakdown unqualified
· larger surface area



Biological detergents
· protein-digesting enzymes (proteases)
· fat-digesting enzymes (lipases).

Benefits of biological detergents

· less heat / energy / electricity…

Page 8

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· in mitochondria
· glucose decomposes / breaks down / reacts

· CO2 + water
· (quick) source of energy

Equation:
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)

Energy used to:
· build up larger molecules using smaller ones
· enable muscles to contract
· maintain a steady…

Page 9

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If muscles are subjected to long periods of vigorous activity they become fatigued, ie they stop
contracting efficiently. If insufficient oxygen is reaching the muscles they use anaerobic
respiration to obtain energy.
· increased aerobic respiration or decreased anaerobic respiration
· increased energy supply / need less lactic acid formed…

Page 10

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· divide by mitosis
· during growth or to produce replacement cells.

Mitosis
· molecule has two long strands/double helix;
· idea of held together by (weak) bonds;
· each strand has 4 different types of base; )
· which pair with specific bases in opposite strand; )
· when…

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