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Cells, tissue and organs…read more

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Animal and plant cells
· All living thing made of cells ­ cells are small & only seen with microscope
Most cells have structures in common, they had
· nucleus ­ controls cells activates
· Cytoplasm ­ many chemical reactions takes place
· Cell membrane controls movement of materials in and out of cell
· Mitochondria where energy relapsed during aerobic respiration
· Ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place
Plants and algal cells also have
· Rigid cell wall made of cellulose for support
· Chloroplast contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis ­ chloroplasts absorb light energy to make food (photosynthesis)
· Permanent vacuole conatus cells sap
· Algae simple aquatic organisms which have vey familiar features to plant cells…read more

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Bacteria and yeast
· Bacteria = very small & can only be seen with powerful microscope
· Bacteria cells have cell membrane and cell wall surrounding cytoplasm
· Bacteria don't have nucleus so genetic information in cytoplasm
· When bacteria multiply form colony ­ bacteria colonies be seen with naked eye
· yeast = single ­celled organism
· Yeast cells have nucleus, cytoplasm and membrane surrounded by cell wall…read more

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Specialised cells
Many types of animal and plant cells ­ as organisms matures, each cells develops
into particular type ­ structure of cell linked to function
· If cell has many mitochondria needs lots of energy, e.g. muscle or sperm cell
· If cell has many ribosomes making lots of protein, e.g. gland cells producing
enzymes
· Receptor cells have special structures enable them to detect stimuli, e.g. cone
cells in eye are light sensitive
· Cells tail able to move, e.g.. Sperm cells
· Neurons are specialised carry impulse from receptors to CNS
· Plant cells with many chloroplast will be photosynthesising, e.g. mesophyll cells of
leaf
· Root hair cells increase SA of root so can absorb water and mineral ions
effectively…read more

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Diffusion
· Molecules in gases and liquids move around randomly because of energy they have
· Diffusion is spreading out of particles of gas or of any substances in solution
· Net movement into or out of cells depends on concentration of particles on each side of cell
membrane
· Because particles move randomly, will be net (overall) movement from area of high
concentration to area of low concentration
· Difference in concentration between two areas is called concentration gradient
· Larger difference in concentration faster rate of diffusion
Examples are
· Diffusion of oxygen into cells of body from bloodstream as cells are respiring (&using up
oxygen)
· Diffusion of carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells
· Diffusion simple sugar & amino acids from gut through cell membrane…read more

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