B1D REVISION NOTES

SINGLE SCIENCE, OCR BOARD - HIGHER TIER, BIOLOGY - B1D

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Keeping in touch
We perceive what happens on the outside world through
our senses
Receptors in the sense organs convert the stimulus into
electrical signals that travel in the brain
Sense organs in humans
Eyes which contain cells sensitive to light
Ears which contain cells sensitive to sounds
Which contain cells that give us a sense of balance

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Tongue which contains cells sensitive to tastes
Nose which contains cells sensitive to smells
Skin which contains cells sensitive to touch and
temperature
All these
All these cells send messages to the Central Nervous
System ( CNS )
These are made up of the brain and the spinal cord
The Central Nervous System ( CNS )
The central nervous system controls all the organs of the
body so that they work together
The main parts in the nervous systems is made up of the
brain…read more

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When the central nervous system receives a signal it
makes a decision whether to take action or not to take
action
It then responds by causing muscles or glands to do
something, this is called co ­ ordination
The cells that carry the messages are called nerves
Nerves are bundles of fibres ...
Nerves
...…read more

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There are several kinds of neurones, the most important being :
Sensory neurones that carry messages to the brain
Motor neurones that carry messages from the brain
Sensory neurones…read more

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Motor Neurones
The branches of the neurones ( dendrites ) are connected
to other dendrites from other cells
There is a tiny gap called a synapse…read more

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Synapses
Synapses 2…read more

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The signal causes special chemicals, neurone transmitters,
to cross the gap from one nerve ending to another which
transfers the signal
The neurone transmitters are then destroyed by special
enzymes
Co ­ ordination by the Central Nervous System
The Central Nervous System has to decide how the body
should respond, using the information received from all
receptors
This decision making process is called co ­ ordination
The responses are usually two main types
Reflexes and voluntary actions
Voluntary actions
These responses always involve the brain…read more

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Reflexes
These type of responses is very rapid and does not involve
conscious thought
It is often used to protect the body from damage…read more

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The reflex arc
Receptor Sensory Relay Motor Effector
Neurone Nerone Neurone
The eye…read more

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The iris and the pupil
The coloured part of the eye us called the iris
The iris has two sets if muscles
These control the amount of light going in the eye
In dim light
Large pupil lets more light into the eye
In bright light…read more

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