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Pathogens are dieses causing micro ­ organisms
Different types of pathogens
Fungi - Athletes foot
Viruses ­ Common cold or influenza
Bacteria ­ Cholera
Protozoa ­ Malaria or dysentery
Ways pathogens can enter the body
Eating or drinking ­ something that is contaminated
Through the sink
By vectors ­ organisms that carries diseases that
transmits…read more

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Skin ­ natural barrier
Respiratory system ­ Mucus traps micro ­ organisms and
cilia moves mucus up to the mouth
Stomach ­ Produces hydrochloric acid ( CHL ) which kills
micro ­ organisms on food
Blood clots ­ around a cut to prevent microbes entering the
blood stream
White blood cells
Pathogens that actually get into the blood stream are
killed or ingested by white blood cells
The symptoms of infected diseases are caused by cell
damage or by toxins produced by pathogens
Other…read more

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White Blood Cells…read more

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The two main types of white blood cell found in the human
bloodstream. The dark object in each of the cells is the
How blood cells work
1. This white blood cell recognises bacteria
2. Antibodies are produced by white blood cell
3. Antibodies stick bacteria together
4.…read more

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How antibodies attack antigens
Active Immunity
After the body has made the antibody it remembers it
If the same pathogens enter the body again the antibodies
needed can be produced more quickly
As a result you do not become ill
Passive Immunity
In a life threatening situation the doctor can inject
antibodies from someone else
These do not give protection against later infection
A harmless pathogen is gen
This carries antigens
Antigens trigger white blood cells to make antibodies
After this, immunity remains…read more

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1. Protects you against a disease which could kill or cause
disability ­ Polio and measles
2. If everyone is vaccinated the diseases cannot spread and
eventually dies out ­ smallpox
1.…read more

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Nets can be used at night to stop mosquitoes from reaching
people ­ also water surfaces can be sprayed with oil to prevent
larvae from breathing.…read more

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This is caused by organ malfunction
The pancreas stops producing insulin…read more

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Cancer occurs when the body cells divide uncontrollably to
produce a mass of cells called a tumour
Some tumours stop growing and are therefore benign
( safe )
It is tumours that continue to grow and spread that are
dangerous, these are malignant
It is possible to reduce the chances of getting cancer :
Do not smoke
Do not drink excessive amounts of alcohol
Avoid being overweight
Avoid sunburn
Eat a healthy diet…read more


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