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Keeping in touch

We perceive what happens on the outside world through our
senses
Receptors in the sense organs convert the stimulus into
electrical signals that travel in the brain

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Sense organs in humans

Eyes which contain cells sensitive to light
Ears which contain cells sensitive to sounds
Which contain cells that give us a sense of balance
Tongue which contains cells sensitive to tastes
Nose which contains cells sensitive to smells
Skin which contains cells sensitive to touch and…

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When the central nervous system receives a signal it makes
a decision whether to take action or not to take action
It then responds by causing muscles or glands to do
something, this is called co ­ ordination
The cells that carry the messages are called nerves
Nerves are bundles…

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Neurones

There are several kinds of neurones, the most important being :
Sensory neurones that carry messages to the brain
Motor neurones that carry messages from the brain




Sensory neurones

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Motor Neurones




The branches of the neurones ( dendrites ) are connected to
other dendrites from other cells

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There is a tiny gap called a synapse
Synapses




Synapses 2

The signal causes special chemicals, neurone transmitters, to
cross the gap from one nerve ending to another which
transfers the signal

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The neurone transmitters are then destroyed by special
enzymes

Co ­ ordination by the Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System has to decide how the body
should respond, using the information received from all
receptors
This decision making process is called co ­ ordination
The responses are usually two…

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Reflexes

These type of responses is very rapid and does not involve
conscious thought
It is often used to protect the body from damage

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The reflex arc

Receptor Sensory Relay Motor Effector
Neurone Nerone Neurone




The eye

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The iris and the pupil

The coloured part of the eye us called the iris
The iris has two sets if muscles
These control the amount of light going in the eye

In dim light




Large pupil lets more light into the eye

In bright light

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