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Substance Causes Bacteria produce toxins. E.g. salmonella and MRSA.
Antibiotics kill them by damaging the cell wall.
Alcohol Damage to liver & brain
Viruses damage cells and release toxins. They cannot be killed by
Slows reactions, loss of self control
antibiotics as they hide in human cells in order to reproduce.
Cannabis Can lead to hard drugs
Psychological (mind) problems Infectious diseases are Skin, blood clotting and mucus
Nicotine Addiction caused by pathogens in the breathing system stop
bacteria and viruses. pathogens entering the body.
Tar Emphysema Semmelweiss
realised that Your white blood
Carbon Monoxide Low birth mass in babies doctors need to cells help to defend
washing their you against
hands. pathogens by
Carcinogens Cancer ingesting them,
making antitoxins
Thalidomide Limb abnormalities in babies Some medicines relieve
and making
Now treats leprosy & cancer symptoms but do not kill the
pathogen e.g. painkillers.
Drugs change the chemical process in your body
making you addicted to them. When addicts stop they
New medicines are extensively Many types of bacteria have
have withdrawal symptoms.
tested and trialled to make sure developed antibiotic
Some recreational drugs are legal and others are they work and are not toxic. resistance as a result of
illegal. The overall impact of legal drugs on health is Alexander Flemming discovered natural selection.
much greater. penicillin.
Vaccines contain dead or
weakened microorganisms.
Your white blood cells produce
antibodies as a practice. This
makes you immune to bacteria If bacteria or viruses mutate, new
and viruses. strains can appear which spread
Stimulants e.g. caffeine, cocaine & nicotine make you rapidly to cause epidemics (one
more alert by increasing the speed the nervous system The MMR jab is for measles, country) and
works at. pandemics
mumps and rubella. Some people
Depressants e.g. cannabis and alcohol slow your worried that the jab caused (several countries).
nervous system down by stopping nerve impulses. autism.…read more


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