B1 REVISION NOTES AQA

reision notes for b1, some topics missing though

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Danica
  • Created on: 03-06-13 08:50
Preview of B1 REVISION NOTES AQA

First 570 words of the document:

biology b1! 1
BIOLOGY-
B1
Keeping
Healthy
· Proteins
-build
new
*ssues,
amino
acids,
growth
and
repair
· Carbohydrates
-
energy
· Fats
-
stored
energy
· Water-
chemical
reac*ons
· Fibre-
help
prevent
cons*pa*on
· Vitamins
and
minerals
-
general
health
METABOLISM-
rate
at
which
reac*ons
in
the
body
take
place
higher
metabolic
rate
=
easier
to
lose
energy
- Cholesterol
-->
too
much
leads
to
blocked
arteries
- Type
2
Diabetes
-->
overweight,
can't
control
produce
insulin
to
control
sugar
levels
Defence
against
Disease
&
Vaccina<on
· Microorganism
-->
bacteria,
viruses,
fungi
· Pathogens
-->
microorganisms
that
cause
diseases
· Bacteria
disease
-->
produce
toxins
which
are
poisonous
· Viruses
-->
infect
the
body
cell,
and
reproduce,
cell
will
break
open
&
permanently
damaged
· White
blood
cells
--->
either
ingest
pathogens,
produce
an*bodies
or
an*toxins
IngesAng
- white
blood
cell
recognises
the
pathogen
- moves
towards
the
pathogen,
surrounds
it,
engulfs
the
bacterium
- pathogen
digested
and
broken
down,
disappears
bc
of
diges*ve
enzymes
AnAbodies
- White
blood
cells
produce
an$bodies
- an*gens
are
from
bacteria
- an*bodies
aFach
to
an*gens
&
destroys
the
bacteria
AnAtoxins
- an*toxins
from
white
blood
cells
- toxins
from
bacterium
- an*toxins
make
the
toxins
neutralise,
become
harmless
VACCINCATION
- dead
pathogens
of
the
disease
are
inserted
into
the
body
through
vaccina*on
- white
blood
cells
recognise
the
pathogens
&
produce
an*bodies
to
fight
of
the
an*gens
of
the
dead
disease
- when
the
real
disease
is
in
the
body,
the
white
blood
cells
recognise
the
disease
quickly
and
produce
an*bodies
at
a
faster
rate
to
fight
of
the
disease
· more
people
in
the
popula*on
vaccinated,
harder
it
is
for
disease
to
spread
M
-
measles
M
-
Mumps
R
-
Rubella

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

MMR
Vaccine
&
Ignaz
Semmelweis
· some
scien*sts
think
it
was
linked
to
au*sm,
people
didn't
take
the
vaccine
Ignaz
Semmelweis
- no*ced
`childbed
fever'
-->
killed
the
people
the
people
who
suffered
NoAced:
when
midwifes
delivered
the
babies,
low
number
of
deaths
when
medical
students
delivered
babies,
high
number
of
deaths
- observa*ons
-->
collected
some
data
- hypothesis
-->
had
an
idea/predica*on
based
on
his
observa*ons
- experiment:
Wash
hands
before
delivering
babies
for
med
students
- number
of
deaths
decreased
greatly
-…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Control
in
the
Human
Body
- temperature
-->
needs
to
be
t
37
degrees
for
enzymes
to
work
at
- water
-->
70%
of
body
is
water,
vital
for
chemical
reac*ons
- ions
--->
need
correct
ion
balance
so
cells
can
work,
don't
become
shrivelled
up
or
burst
- bloody
sugar
-->
to
provide
cells
with
energy
- water
leaves
body
through:
lungs
when
breathing
out,
skin
when
swea*ng,
pee
- temperature
in
body
increases
when
cold
&
decreases
when
warm
Hormones
in
the
Menstrual…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Developing
New
Drugs
for
Medicine
Drugs
-->
affect
body
chemistry,
used
for
medical,
recrea*onal
or
for
performance
enhancing
purposes
can
be
legal
or
illegal
Medical
drugs
--->
New
Drugs,
tested
in
lab
1.
Toxicity
Trials
-->
drugs
tested
on
cells,
*ssues
&
animals
to
see
if
they're
toxic
2.
Clinical
Trials
--->
tested
on
volunteers,
given
low
doses
to
see
if
any
side
effects
3.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Animals
Cold
temperatures:
- thick
fur,
traps
air
keeps
warm
- thick
layer
of
fat,
good
insulator
- white
colour,
for
camouflage
keep
away
from
Large
surface
area
to
volume
raFo
-->
LOSE
HEAT
Cactus:
dry
condi*ons,
leaves(low
surface
area
so
doesn't
lose
water),
thick
stem(store
water),
large
root
system(get
as
much
water)
Factors
Affec<ng
Distribu<on
of
Living
things
lichens
-->
air
pollu*on
lichen
growth
affected
by
sulphur
dioxide
concentra*on
in
the
atmosphere
Decay
animal
dies
-->
eaten
by
microorganisms
(release
CO2)
-->
CO2
taken…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Tissue
Culture
1. Take
small
group
of
cells
from
leaf
or
stem
or
root
2. put
the
ball
of
cells
in
nutrient
agar
jelly
(contains
vitamins,
sugars
&
hormones)
3. allow
to
grow,
the
offspring
will
be
clones
of
the
original
plant,
the
agar
jelly
needs
to
be
sterile
Embryo
Transplant
1. Take
an
egg
&
sperm
and
fuse
2. embryo
formed,
ball
of
unspecialised
cells
3. split
the
embryo
into
more
smaller
ball
cells
4. insert
the
smaller
embryos
into
the
host
mother
5.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Darwin
Vs
Lamarck
Darwin Lamarck
Individual in a species show variation in Individuals in a species can change their
features features over their lifetime
Advantageous features help individuals to These changes made by the living
live longer & reproduce individuals are passed onto their
offspring
Advantageous features are passed on to
offspring
SURVIVAL
OF
THE
FITTEST…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »