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B1a: Fitness and Health…read more

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Blood Pressure
· Blood in arteries is under pressure due to contraction of heart
muscles and so that it reaches all parts of the body
· Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg)
· It has two measurements: systolic pressure is the maximum pressure
the heart produces and diastolic pressure is the blood pressure
between heart beats
· Factors that can increase blood pressure: being overweight, stress,
smoking, high alcohol intake
· Factors that can decrease blood pressure (safe): regular exercise and
eating a balanced diet
· High blood pressure can cause blood vessels to burst. This can cause
damage to the brain (stroke) and it can also damage the kidneys
· Low blood pressure can lead to dizziness and fainting as the blood
supply to the brain is reduced as well as poor circulation to other
areas such as fingers and toes.…read more

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Fitness and health
· Fitness is the ability to do physical activity. Health is
being free from disease.
· Ways of measuring fitness:
-general: cardiovascular efficiency
-strength: amount of weights lifted
-flexibility: amount of joint movement
-stamina: time of sustained exercise
-agility: changing direction many times
-speed: sprint race
· Someone could be very fit for a sprint race but not
perform well in a marathon
· Ways of measuring fitness should be evaluated to check
effectiveness in particular situations…read more

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Smoking
· Smoking increases blood pressure because carbon
monoxide reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of
the blood so the heart rate increases to
compensate. Nicotine also increases heart rate.
· Carbon monoxide decreases the oxygen-carrying
capacity of the blood because it combines with
haemoglobin, preventing it from combining with
oxygen, so less oxygen is carried.…read more

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Diet & Heart Disease
· Heart disease is caused by restricted blood flow to the
heart muscle
· Risk increased by:
-A high level of saturated fat in the diet, which leads to a
build-up of cholesterol (a plaque) in the arteries
-High levels of salt, which can increase blood pressure
· The narrowing of the arteries caused by plaques in the
coronary arteries can reduce blood flow to the heart
muscle. The plaques also make blood clots or
thrombosis more likely to happen, which will also block
the arteries.…read more

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