B1 Notes

Notes covering photosynthesis, osmosis, diffusion and animal & plant cells

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  • Created by: Fatima
  • Created on: 17-05-11 20:22
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ANIMALS CELLS HAVE...
NUCLEUS- Contains GENETIC information that controls activities of cells
CYTOPLASM- Gel-like substance where most CHEMICAL REACTIONS HAPPEN. Contains
ENZYMES that control most chemical reactions
CELL MEMBRANE- Holds cell together, controls what goes in and out
MITROCHONDRIA- Where most of the REACTIONS for RESPIRATION happen.
RIBOSOMES-Where PROTEIN SYNTHESIS happens
PLANT CELLS HAVE EVERYTHING ANIMAL CELLS AND...
RIGID CELL WALL- Made of CELLULOSE- Supports and strengthens cell
VACOULE- Cell Sap (weak solution of sugar and salts)
CHLOROPLASTS- For PHOTOSYNTHESIS- Contains CHLOROFYLL
CELLS...
Make up tissue, organs and systems
Have structures that are SPECIALIZED
SIMILAR CELLS=TISSUE
DIFFERENT TISSUE=ORGAN
ORGANS...
Have particular jobs
Groups of organs working together=ORGAN SYSTEM (e.g. digestive system)
Groups of organ systems = ORGANISM
SPECIALIZED CELLS
1. PALISADE LEAVE CELLS- ADAPTED FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CHLOROPLASTS- Lots near top-nearer to light
BIG SURFACE AREA for absorbing CO2
THIN- Lots in small area
2. GUARD CELLS- ADAPTED TO OPEN/CLOSE PORES and CONTROL WATER LOSS.
Kidney shaped
Opens/closes STOMATA pores in leaves
Lots of water=guard cells fill with it and become turgid. This makes the Stomata
open.
SHORTAGE OF WATER=Guard cells lose water and become FLACCID, making the
stomata close. HELPS STOP TOO MUCH WATER VAPOUR ESCAPING.
THIN OUTER WALLS/ THICKENNED INNER WALLS
SENSITIVE TO LIGHT- Close at night to save water

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Particles Move About RANDOMLY and after a bit end up EVENLY SPACED.
DIFFUSION
Gradual Movement of particles from places where there are lots of them to places
where there are few of them
From HIGH CONCENTRATION to LOW CONCENTRATION
Passive movement
Happens in both LIQUIDS and GASES-Particles are FREE TO MOVE
BIGGER the DIFFERENCE in CONCENTRATION= FASTER the DIFFUSION
CELL MEMBRANES
Hold cells together
Let stuff in and out by OSMOSIS and DIFFUSION
Only allows v.…read more

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Produces GLUCOSE using SUNLIGHT
Produces food in plants
Happens in leaves
Happens in CHLOROPLASTS which contain CHLOROFYLL
CHLOROFYLL absorbs SUNLIGHT which converts its carbon dioxide and water into
GLUCOSE. OXYGEN IS ALSO PRODUCED.
4 THINGS ARE NEEDED FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO HAPPEN:
LIGHT from sun
CARBON DIOXIDE
CHLOROFYLL- green substance absorbs energy in sunlight.
WATER from soil
THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
A limiting factor of photosynthesis is...…read more

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If plant gets too low ­ enzymes and other reactions get damaged- 45 degrees
You can artificially create the ideal conditions for farming
Greenhouses
Traps sun's heat so that temperature doesn't becoming limiting factor
Winter- heater is used to keep ideal levels
Summer- can get too hot- ventilation is used
Light- farmers often use artificial light at night
Co2 levels also need to be increased ­ paraffin heater is often used as it gives of co2 as a
by product
Keeping plants enclosed keeps pests…read more

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