B1 Biology EXCELLENT revision notes! WJEC

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GCSE Science:
Biology 1
Revision Book
Content
Classification 2 Inheritance and Chromosomes 23
How are organisms named? 3 Inheritance of Sex 24
Adaptations 4 Genetics 25
Population Size 5 Gregor Mendel 26
What effects do humans have on 6 Genetics Problems 27
the environment ?
Intensive Farming 7 Genetically Modified (GM) Crops 28
Measuring pollution in rivers and 8 Variation 29
streams
Measuring Air Pollution 9 Reproduction 30
Pesticides in Food Chains 10 Mutations 31
Heavy Metals in Food Chains 11 Inherited Diseases ­ Cystic Fibrosis 32
Effect of Fertilisers and Sewage on 12 Gene therapy 33
the Environment
Energy and Nutrient Transfer 13 Evolution 34
Food Webs 14 The Nervous System 35
Energy Flow Through a Food Chain 15 Plant Senses 36
Food Pyramids 16 Homeostasis 37
Building Food Pyramids 17 Diabetes 38
The Carbon Cycle 18 The Skin 39
The Nitrogen Cycle 19 Balanced Diet 41
Genetic Information 20 Food Labelling 42
DNA 21 Lifestyle diseases ­ Drugs 43
Genetic Profiling 22 Health 44
www.bangor.ac.uk/GCSErevision 1

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition
Classification ­ Descriptive Groups
Living organisms show a range of sizes, features and complexity.
They can be divided into broad descriptive groups.
Living organisms
Plants Animals Microorganisms (microbes)
Flowering Non-flowering Algae Fungi Bacteria
plants plants
Vertebrates Invertebrates
Why and how should organisms be classified?
The names which we use everyday for animals and plants
e.g. dog, cat, seagull, daisy are called common names.…read more

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition
How are organisms named?
International committees decide the scientific names of organisms,
e.g. International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature (animal names).
Biologists use the binomial system devised by Carl Linnaeus which is in Latin.
All organisms are given two names, e.g. Homo sapiens for humans or
Erinaeceus europaeus for the hedgehog.
The first name refers to the genus which the organism shares with other closely
related organisms.…read more

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition
Adaptations
Organisms have morphological (the shape of an organism) and behavioural
adaptations that enable them to survive in their environment.
Case study ­ Foxes
The arctic fox is found throughout the artic and sub-artic tundra whilst the Fennec
fox is found in the Sahara and Arabian deserts.
1. Morphological adaptations
· Ear length
Animals with small ears lose less heat because they have a smaller
surface area.…read more

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition
Population Size
Population size means how many of one type of plant or animal (species)
there is in a given ecosystem.…read more

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer
What effects do humans have on the environment ?
When the human population was less, the effect of human activity on the
environment was lower and localised. As populations have increased, the effects
on the environment have increased also.
These days more and more species are vanishing because man is destroying
their habitats.…read more

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer
Intensive Farming
In order to feed the growing world
population we need get as much
yield (from plants or animals) from
less land.
We can do this by using intensive
farming methods.
You need to be able to name methods of intensive farming and describe their
advantages and disadvantages:
Methods Advantages Disadvantages
Increase plant yield. Can wash out of soils and
Fertilisers
pollute rivers and streams.…read more

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer
Measuring pollution in rivers and streams
Populations can be upset by the introduction of harmful materials into the
environment, which results in pollution.
Pollution in rivers and streams
can be measured using:
· Changes in pH levels
· Changes in oxygen
levels
· Indicator species
·
· Changes in pH
Acidification of rivers and streams is due to acid rain and run-off from
surrounding land. Below pH 4.5-5 aluminium is released from rocks.…read more

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer
Measuring Air Pollution
Lichen can be used as indicator species for air pollution.
Lichens are sensitive to sulphur dioxide gas (produced form burning fossil
fuels).
Some species are so sensitive that a very low concentration of the gas will kill
them.
Lichen found growing on trees or rocks could be used to indicate the
concentration of sulphur dioxide in the air.…read more

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer
Pesticides in Food Chains
These are chemicals that farmers use to control pests and diseases on crop
plants.
· Insecticides kill insect pests feeding on plants.
· Herbicides (weed killers) reduce competition for water and light
between pest plants and crops.
· Fungicides kill fungi that cause plant diseases.
Environmental Effects of Pesticides - Bioaccumulation
Pesticides can be sprayed on crops.…read more

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