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GCSE Science:
Biology 1
Revision Book




Content
Classification 2 Inheritance and Chromosomes 23
How are organisms named? 3 Inheritance of Sex 24
Adaptations 4 Genetics 25
Population Size 5 Gregor Mendel 26
What effects do humans have on 6 Genetics Problems 27
the environment ?
Intensive Farming 7 Genetically Modified…

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition

Classification ­ Descriptive Groups

Living organisms show a range of sizes, features and complexity.
They can be divided into broad descriptive groups.
Living organisms


Plants Animals Microorganisms (microbes)

Flowering Non-flowering Algae Fungi Bacteria
plants plants


Vertebrates Invertebrates



Why and how should organisms be classified?…

Page 3

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition

How are organisms named?
International committees decide the scientific names of organisms,
e.g. International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature (animal names).

Biologists use the binomial system devised by Carl Linnaeus which is in Latin.

All organisms are given two names, e.g. Homo sapiens for humans…

Page 4

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition

Adaptations
Organisms have morphological (the shape of an organism) and behavioural
adaptations that enable them to survive in their environment.

Case study ­ Foxes
The arctic fox is found throughout the artic and sub-artic tundra whilst the Fennec
fox is found in the Sahara…

Page 5

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Variety of Life, Adaptation and Competition

Population Size
Population size means how many of one type of plant or animal (species)
there is in a given ecosystem.
The size of an animal population may be affected by:
· Competition for food and water,
· Number of predators,
· Disease,
·…

Page 6

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer

What effects do humans have on the environment ?

When the human population was less, the effect of human activity on the
environment was lower and localised. As populations have increased, the effects
on the environment have increased also.

These days more…

Page 7

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer

Intensive Farming


In order to feed the growing world
population we need get as much
yield (from plants or animals) from
less land.
We can do this by using intensive
farming methods.




You need to be able to name methods of intensive…

Page 8

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer

Measuring pollution in rivers and streams


Populations can be upset by the introduction of harmful materials into the
environment, which results in pollution.

Pollution in rivers and streams
can be measured using:
· Changes in pH levels
· Changes in oxygen
levels…

Page 9

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer

Measuring Air Pollution


Lichen can be used as indicator species for air pollution.
Lichens are sensitive to sulphur dioxide gas (produced form burning fossil
fuels).
Some species are so sensitive that a very low concentration of the gas will kill
them.
Lichen…

Page 10

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Monitoring the Environment, Energy Flow and Nutrient Transfer

Pesticides in Food Chains


These are chemicals that farmers use to control pests and diseases on crop
plants.
· Insecticides kill insect pests feeding on plants.
· Herbicides (weed killers) reduce competition for water and light
between pest plants and crops.
·…

Comments

Rebecca Louise Bird

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WOW! This booklet is very helpful and I have learnt a lot. Thanks!

nanza

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this is sooo useful!! recommend it! 

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