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Attachment Theories

Evolutionary theory of attachment (e.g. Bowlby, Harlow, Lorenz) suggests that children
come into the world biologically preprogrammed to form attachments with others, because
this will help them to survive. The infant produces innate `social releaser' behaviours such
as crying and smiling that stimulate innate caregiving responses from adults.…

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Bowlby believed that attachment behaviours are instinctive and will be activated by
any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation,
insecurity and fear.
Bowlby (1969, 1988) also postulated that the fear of strangers represents an important
survival mechanism, built in by nature. Babies are born…

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sensitive response of the caregiver that is important (as apposed to the provision
of food).
Harlow concluded that for a monkey to develop normally s/he must have some
interaction with an object to which they can cling during the first months of life
(critical period). Clinging is a natural response…


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