Attachment revision quick flash cards

Quick notes on attachment and the key case studies

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Shaffer and Emerson 1964
Findings:
attachments seem to be formed to responsive individuals rather than the individuals who provide the care
develop multiple attachments and earlier than what Bowlby predicted
found that 3% of infants have a primary attachment with the father
Challenges:
Learning Theory infants form attachment to people who do not feed them.
Bowlby's attachment theory infants develop multiple attachments and can form a primary attachment with the
father
Harlow 1958
Findings:
Found that Rhesus monkey formed an attachment with the "comforting" dummy rather than the one who fed him
Challenges:
Learning Theory infants form attachment to people who do not feed them.
Negatives:
cannot extrapolate to suit humans
attachment was not reciprocal ­not a true attachment
Bowlby's Attachment Theory
Findings:
attachment behaviour has evolved because of its survival value
formation of attachment is innate
attachment developed best in sensitive period ­ 6 to 9 months
infants born with certain characteristics which elicit care giving ­ social releasers
child forms primary attachment ­ monotropy (usually the mother)
relation with child & primary care giver serves as template for future relationships ­ internal working model
link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour - continuity hypothesis
Influences:
Lorenz & his goslings attachment formed to first moving object seen ­ imprinting
Positive:
Supported by Tronick ­ studied the Efe tribe: infants were fed by many different women in the tribe, but at night, slept
with their mothers

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Continuity hypothesis - Bowlby
Findings:
relation with child & primary care giver serves as template for future relationships ­ internal working model
link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour - continuity hypothesis
Supported by:
Hazan and Shaver (1987) ­ showed that the type of attachment in early childhood seems to predict the types of
relationships in adulthood
Challenged by:
Evidence to support that people who have had poor attachment in early childhood develop secure relationships in
adulthood
Mary Ainsworth ­ The Strange Situation…read more

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Van Ijzendoorn and De Wolff ­ showed a weak correlation between sensitivity of mother and child's type of
attachment
Kagan ­ argued child's temperament must be taken into account (caregiving is discouraged by a bad temperament
baby
Temperament hypothesis:
Different aspects of temperament:
· Activity (how much time the child spend awake and alert)
· Emotionality (how the child becomes upset or aroused by events)
· Sociability (how much the child seeks human company)
Challenged by:
Belsky and Bovine (1987) ­ propose that individual differences…read more

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Separation ­ Robertson and Robertson (1969)
Findings:
Proposed that long term maternal deprivation is harmful
"Mother love in infancy and childhood is important for mental health...…read more

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Supports:
Bowlby and the critical period ­ children showed difficulties in developing relationships with peers
Challenges:
Bowlby and the critical period ­ adopted children and nearly half of restored children able to form strong bonds with
parents
Natural study ­ lack of control
Day Care (positive impact) ­ Campbell, Hwang and Lang (2000)
Procedure:
Children from Sweden studied at intervals between 18 months and 15 years
sociability was established by early observation in the home and day care facility
Children were cared for in a…read more

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Partly age of child
Type of existing attachment bond
Child's temperament
Quality of day care
Learning approach (attachment is learnt)
Operant conditioning:
Learning by consequences: reinforced by reward and stopped by punishment
Child performs various behaviours when he/she is hungry, when he/she cries, the caregiver responds by fulfilling
child's needs (consequence) therefore reinforcing this behaviour ­ child knows to repeat behaviour to have its needs
fulfilled
Classical conditioning:
Learning by association (Pavlov's dogs & think guinea pigs)
Same person (caregiver) fulfil child's needs every time…read more

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