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Shaffer and Emerson 1964
attachments seem to be formed to responsive individuals rather than the individuals who provide the care
develop multiple attachments and earlier than what Bowlby predicted
found that 3% of infants have a primary attachment with the father

Learning Theory infants form attachment to people…

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Continuity hypothesis - Bowlby
relation with child & primary care giver serves as template for future relationships ­ internal working model
link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour - continuity hypothesis

Supported by:
Hazan and Shaver (1987) ­ showed that the type of attachment in early childhood…

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Van Ijzendoorn and De Wolff ­ showed a weak correlation between sensitivity of mother and child's type of
Kagan ­ argued child's temperament must be taken into account (caregiving is discouraged by a bad temperament

Temperament hypothesis:
Different aspects of temperament:
· Activity (how much time the child…

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Separation ­ Robertson and Robertson (1969)

Proposed that long term maternal deprivation is harmful
"Mother love in infancy and childhood is important for mental health..."
Claimed that continuous "maternal care" is necessary for emotional and cognitive development
Critical period ­ in first 2 ½ years of life ­ during…

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Bowlby and the critical period ­ children showed difficulties in developing relationships with peers

Bowlby and the critical period ­ adopted children and nearly half of restored children able to form strong bonds with
Natural study ­ lack of control

Day Care (positive impact) ­ Campbell, Hwang…

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Partly age of child
Type of existing attachment bond
Child's temperament
Quality of day care

Learning approach (attachment is learnt)
Operant conditioning:
Learning by consequences: reinforced by reward and stopped by punishment
Child performs various behaviours when he/she is hungry, when he/she cries, the caregiver responds by fulfilling
child's needs…


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