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Studies.

ATTACHMENT IN ANIMALS.
Lorenz 2 separate groups.
One followed Lorenz, other followed mother.
Ducklings imprint on the first thing they see.
Believed that there was a critical period (Bowlby adapted this to humans)
Harlow Monkeys were separated from their mother shortly after birth.
Monkey would have two mothers:
A…

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Found that secure infants were more popular with peerds in their second year.
They also had less angression and higher self esteem and tended to cooperate more with their
mothers at 2 years.
Thompson Attachment style is table unless there was major changes in life circumstances.
Ainsworth THE STRANGE SITUATION…

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Vaughan Studied mothers and infants in single parent families who were constantly moving
accommodation/
12 months: 55% secure
25% avoidant
25% resistant.
At 18 months 38% were classified as a different style.

This showed that attachment isn't always stable.



CULTURAL VARIATIONS.
Van I Jzendoorn Metaanalysis of all the studies.
and…

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EXPLAINATIONS OF ATTACHMENT
BEHAVIOURISTS ­ LEARNING THEORY CUPBOARD LOVE THEORY

Pavlov Dogs and associative learning: FOODSALVATION
BELLFOOD
BELLSALVATION.
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUSUNCODITIONED REPSONSE
NEUTRAL STIMULUS REPEATED
CONDITIONED STIMULUSCONDITIONED RESPONSE.

Thorndike Put cats in a puzzle box and they had to get out. Learning via consequences. They were given a
reward of fish…

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A single intense bond is formed with the mother.
All other attachments are inferior.
He did accept that their was multiple attachments but the mother is always the most important.
The father is no emotional significance just economic support for the mother.

Continuity Theory:
(experience has long term effects)
Disrupted…

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Cry occasionally.

Detachment:
Child cries a lot less
Indicating recovery.
Suppresses their feelings towards their mother.
Angry and rejecting.
Behaviour protects them being hurt again.


Robertson and Showed that separation doesn't have to lead to emotional problems as long as there is a good
Robertson amount of substitution of care,…

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The boys were 4 times more likely to be delinquents if the separation was due to illness.
This suggests that its family discord rather than separation.

Rutter 3rd variable problem.
Discord in the home.
Poverty.
Abuse and neglect.

Each could explain both why a child experiences separation and emotional and…

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Only half of the restored children's parents said that they played with their children during the
week.
90% of adopted children played with their children during the week.
72% of working class parents played with their children.

Age 16:
Adopted children were content and so were they're parents.
Children returned…

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Field More time spent in day care = better grades and more friends.
They were rated better by parents and teachers and were observed to have very few
behavioural problems.
The children showed more affection, assertiveness, popularity and had lower counts of
aggression.

ClarkeStewart et Observations of children in day…

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The teachers were asked to rate the children on certain aspects and the children that had
been to day care scored very high in things such as disobeying them and having high levels of
aggression.
The children's behaviour was within the normal range so they weren't clinically disordered.
Children who…

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