Attachment notes

There may be some spelling mistakes but i hope they help x

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Lorenz 2 separate groups.
One followed Lorenz, other followed mother.
Ducklings imprint on the first thing they see.
Believed that there was a critical period (Bowlby adapted this to humans)
Harlow Monkeys were separated from their mother shortly after birth.
Monkey would have two mothers:
A wire mother
A cloth mother.
Results showed that when the baby was scared it would also cling to the cloth mother as she was
comforting (a safe base) even if the wire mother had the food. The baby monkey would also
choose the cloth mother.
Schaffer and Studied 60 infants from 4 weeks till 1 year.
Emerson. Used to measurements to determine attachment: separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.
65% had their mother has their first attachment
3% had their father as their first attachment
30% had their mother as their first joint attachment.
27% had their father as their first joint attachment.
39% of children didn't attach to the person who feeds, baths, changes them (shows that
the role of feeding isn't that important and that mothers aren't always the first attachment
A02 : mothers record the results, therefore might be bias as they may try and make themselves
look more desirable.
Not a representative sample: from Glasglow, only working class.
Good sample size. (60 children)
The children were in their natural environment (children's home)
Matas et al Several two year olds were given a series of problems requiring them to use tools.
The children who were secure infants approached the problems enthusiastically but when they
struggled they became angry rather than asking for help.
Insecure children were easily frustrated and angry and ignored instructions or help from adults
and gave up quicker.
Secure infants also had more self confidence and higher self esteem.
Waters et al Looked at nursery school children age 3 and a half who had previouls had their attachments
viewed at 15 months.
Sounds that secure infants were social leaders.
Insecure were usually socially withdrawn.
Sroufe. Asked nursery school teachers to rate children n on various dimensions.

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Found that secure infants were more popular with peerds in their second year.
They also had less angression and higher self esteem and tended to cooperate more with their
mothers at 2 years.
Thompson Attachment style is table unless there was major changes in life circumstances.
Strange situation Assessed children on:
Stranger anxiety.
Separation anxiety.
Ability to explore whilst using care giver as a safe base.
Reaction of reunion.…read more

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Vaughan Studied mothers and infants in single parent families who were constantly moving
12 months: 55% secure
25% avoidant
25% resistant.
At 18 months 38% were classified as a different style.
This showed that attachment isn't always stable.
Van I Jzendoorn Metaanalysis of all the studies.
and Kroonenberg Found that there was a strong consistency across different cultures, which suggests that the
things which contribute to a secure attachment are consistent.…read more

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Pavlov Dogs and associative learning: FOODSALVATION
Thorndike Put cats in a puzzle box and they had to get out. Learning via consequences. They were given a
reward of fish if they got out. Found that positive reinforcement encourages an action to be
repeated in the future.…read more

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A single intense bond is formed with the mother.
All other attachments are inferior.
He did accept that their was multiple attachments but the mother is always the most important.
The father is no emotional significance just economic support for the mother.
Continuity Theory:
(experience has long term effects)
Disrupted behaviour has major influences on later behavioural problems.
Maternal Deprivation hypothesis:
Separations between mother and infant were the worst.…read more

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Cry occasionally.
Child cries a lot less
Indicating recovery.
Suppresses their feelings towards their mother.
Angry and rejecting.
Behaviour protects them being hurt again.
Robertson and Showed that separation doesn't have to lead to emotional problems as long as there is a good
Robertson amount of substitution of care, deprivation can be avoided.
Hired Bowlby to film various separations and found:
John spent 9 days in a residencial nursery where the staff had little time to tend to his needs.…read more

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The boys were 4 times more likely to be delinquents if the separation was due to illness.
This suggests that its family discord rather than separation.
Rutter 3rd variable problem.
Discord in the home.
Abuse and neglect.
Each could explain both why a child experiences separation and emotional and behavioural
Goldfarb Group1: 15 raised in institutions from 6 months till 3 years of age.
Group2: 15 gone straight from institutions to a foster home.…read more

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Only half of the restored children's parents said that they played with their children during the
90% of adopted children played with their children during the week.
72% of working class parents played with their children.
Age 16:
Adopted children were content and so were they're parents.
Children returned suffered large difficulties in forming relationships.
Adopted children had close relationships to their adoptive parents.
Quinton Questioned whether private females were able to become good parents.…read more

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Field More time spent in day care = better grades and more friends.
They were rated better by parents and teachers and were observed to have very few
behavioural problems.
The children showed more affection, assertiveness, popularity and had lower counts of
ClarkeStewart et Observations of children in day care and at home.
al Interviews were parents and caregivers.
Children in day care were more advanced in social development, independence, dinnertime
obedience, compliance and social interactions.…read more

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The teachers were asked to rate the children on certain aspects and the children that had
been to day care scored very high in things such as disobeying them and having high levels of
The children's behaviour was within the normal range so they weren't clinically disordered.
Children who had been to various day cares showed more behavioural problems then the
children who had just been to one day care.…read more


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