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Definition
· Attachment : an attachment is a close
emotional relationship between two people. It
is characterised by mutual differentiation and
a desire to maintain proximity.
· Bond : set of feelings that ties one person not
another. Parent often feel strongly about their
newborn baby.
· Ethologist : biologist who study animals
behaviour in natural environment. E.g. Lorenz.…read more

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Macobys Key Attachment Behaviours
· Seeking Proximity to primary caregiver
· Distress on separation
· Pleasure on reuniting
· General Orientation of behaviour towards
primary caregiver…read more

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Shaffer and Emerson
· Longitudinal Study in Glasgow, 60infants for 2 years from mainly working
class area. Infants observed every 4 weeks until they were 1 year old and
then again at 18 months. Measured by separation protest and stranger
anxiety.
· Findings:
· Half of the children showed specific attachment between 25-32 weeks
· Fear of strangers 1 months+
· Intensely attached infants had mothers who responded quickly
· Infants formed other attachments (e.g. dad)
· Evaluation:
· Shows external validity to the extent to which we can generalise results
outside of research setting.
· Natural Observation
· Accurate
· Self report, social desirability.…read more

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Shaffer and Emerson (1964)
3 Stages of attachment:
· Asocial Stage (0-6 weeks) smiling and crying. Not
directed at anyone
· Indiscriminate Attachment (6 weeks ­ 7months)
attachment of some sort from different individual.
Infant becomes more sociable.
· Specific Attachment (7-11 months) strong
attachment to one individual infant shows
separation anxiety and fear of strangers.…read more

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Secure Vs Insecure Attachment
· Secure Attachment : The result of a strong positive relationship between infant and
caregiver so that although the child shows distress on separation he or she is easily
comforted.
· Insecure Attachment :week emotion relationship leading to anxious and insecure
relationship which has a negative impact on development
· Why to children become insecurely attached :
· Differences in maternal sensitivity, infant whose mothers lacks sensitivity are more
likely than others to be insecurely attached.
· Temperament with which a child is both may determine whether she/he is insecurely
attached.
· Maltreated children are insecure.
· Value of secure attachment :
· Warner et al observed that securely attached children showed more competence in
their play. Children are able to confidently explore their environment whilst using
their primary caregiver as a base.
· Belskey and Fearson securely attaches children had greater social confidence, school
rediness, expressive language and receive language.…read more

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