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ATTACHMENT REVISION

Definition of Attachment

Attachment:
Is an emotional bond between two people.
Is a two-way process that endures over time.
Leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the
function of protecting an infant.

Outlining the Learning Theory of Attachment

Main assumptions:
Attachments are formed by…

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Food (unconditioned stimulus) produces a feeling of pleasure (unconditioned
response).
The person providing the food is a neutral stimulus.
The person who feeds the child does this over and over again and becomes
associated with the food ­ the caregiver becomes the conditioned stimulus.
The feeling of pleasure (conditioned response)…

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Fox (1977)
A: To investigate whether children who are mainly raised away from their parents still
form attachments with their parents.
P: Fox observed children born and raised in an Israeli kibbutz. These children were
raised communally, and spent most of their time in a children's house where they
were…

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Grundl's research supports Bowlby's theory of social releases. He conducted an experiment
where participants were shown faces with different amounts of `childlikeness', e.g. big eyes,
small nose, and were asked to rate them by attractiveness. Only 10% of participants rated
the totally adult face as being the most attractive.

Sroufe's…

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Secure Attachment
Harmonious and cooperative interactions with their caregiver.
When feeling anxious they seek close bodily contact with their caregiver and are
easily soothed, though they may be reluctant to leave their caregiver's side
prematurely.
They seek and are comfortable with social interaction and intimacy.
The securely attached infant uses…

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C: Case study ­ would be unethical to do experiment, produces rich qualitative data, findings
cannot be generalised

Depression

Spitz and Wolf observed 100 normal children who were placed in an institution and found
that they all became severely depressed within months

Bifulco et al studied 249 women who had…

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When she was found, she could not stand properly, was unable to speak and was
disinterested in other people
She never recovered socially

The Czech twins were locked up until the age of 7
When they were discovered, they were cared for by two loving sisters
By the age of…

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Belskey and Rovine used the `Strange Situation' to assess attachment type in infants who
had been receiving twenty hours or more of day care per week before they were one years
old.
They found that these children were more likely to be insecurely attached compared with
children at home

Sroufe…

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Clarke-Stewart et al found no difference in attachment between children who spent a
lot of time in day care (>30 hours a week from age 3 months) with children who
spent less time (<10 hours a week)


Implications of Research into Attachment

Quality of Day Care
Research high lists that…

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