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Learning Theory
A01 ­
Classical conditioning ­ A02-
1. Unconditioned stimuli (food) produces · Schaffer & Emerson (1964) ­ 60
unconditioned response (pleasure) babies ­ 4/10 formed first
2. Caregiver provides UCS therefore attachment with those who paid
produces UCR most attention to them
3. Caregiver becomes conditioned stimuli · Harlow (1959) ­ baby monkeys
that produces conditioned response separated from mother ­ cloth
(pleasure) ­ forms attachment. monkey (comfort) and metal
monkey (food) ­ spent most time
Operant conditioning ­ with cloth monkey
1. Hungry baby feels uncomfortable ­ had · Strength of theory ­ does provide
drive to reduce hunger adequate explanation of
2. Infant is fed and produces pleasure ( attachment ­ however food may
food is primary reinforcer) not be the only reinforcer
3. Caregiver is secondary reinforcer as
provides food
4. Caregiver becomes primary reinforcer in
own right and attachment is formed…read more

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Bowlby's evolutionary theory
A01 ­ ASCMI A02-
·Adaptive ­ innate drive to ·Supports imprinting being innate ­ Lorenz
become attached ­ increases (1952) baby goslings attached to first moving
likelihood of survival thing they see ­ similar process evolved in many
·Social releasers ­ drive to species for protection
provide care innate in adults ­ ·Universal explanation ­ Tronik (1992) african
includes crying and smiling tribes ­ children breastfed by different people
·Critical period ­ 3-6 months but still slept with mothers ­ primary
·Monotropy ­ one special attachment still shown 6 months after birth ­
attachment with primary not influenced by culture
caregiver ·Limitations ­ Rutter ­ all attachment figures
·Internal working model ­ equally important (multiple attachment model)
provides expectations of future however Bowlby states one primary attachment
relationships necessary for healthy development.…read more

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Types of attachment ­ Ainsworth 1978
A01 ­ A02-
·Infants 9-18 months ­ tested : Separation ·Ethical issues ­ episode 6 20% of
anxiety, Stranger anxiety, Reunion children cried desperately ­ protection
behaviour & Exploration. from psychological harm
·Securely attached (B) ­ 66% - upset when ·Adult romantic behaviour ­ Hazan &
mother leaves, happy when mother Shaver (1987) ­ love quiz ­ q's about
returns (SENSITIVE CAREGIVING) early attachment & current romantic
·Insecure-Avoidant (A) ­ 22% - low behaviour ­ associated with early
separation anxiety, avoidant when mother attachment (supports internal working
·Insecure-Resistant (C) ­ 12% - Distressed ·Behaviour in later childhood ­ Prior &
when mother leaves ­ clinginess & Glaser (2006) ­ link between
rejection when mother returns attachment and later social functioning
(INCONSISTENT CAREGIVING) ­ secure attachment (positive outcomes
such as less emotional dependence) ­
avoidant attachment (later
aggressiveness) ­ Resistant attachment
(greater anxiety)…read more

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Cultural Variations
A01 ­
A02 ­
Takahashi (1990) ­ SS technique 60
·Culture bias ­ Rothbaum (2000) ­
Japanese infants ­ similar rates of
attachment theory isn't relevant in other
secure attachment ­ high rates of
cultures ­ has strong Western bias ­ Bowlby
insecure-resistant (32%) ­ infants
promotes secure attachment is related to
rarely separated from mothers in
caregiver response ­ Western has ideas of
Japan so appear insecurely attached
autonomy ­ in Japan, sensitivity is
promoting dependence
Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg
·Lacks external validity ­ Takahashi used
(1988) ­ meta analysis 32 studies ­
small sample of 60 infants
differences were small in
·Cross cultural similarities ­ mass media ­
attachment and secure was most
spreading ideas about parenting ­ children
popular ­ western countries had
all over the world exposed to similar
more insecure avoidant and non
western had insecure resistant
·Secure most popular ­
supports `best for healthy
social development' ­ supports
that attachment is innate…read more

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Disruption of attachment
A01 ­
Robertson & Robertson (1969) ­ John,
A02 ­
placed in residential nursery for 9 days ­
·Not all children effected in the same
regular visits from father & behaving
way ­ Barrett (1997) ­ securely attached
normally ­ changes and gradually makes
children cope better, whereas insecurely
efforts to get attention from the nurses-
attached become especially distressed
seeks comfort from teddy ­ 2nd week
·Reversing emotional disruption ­
ignores father ­ when mother comes to
Bohman & Sigvardsson (1979) ­ 600
collect him he screams & struggles
adopted children age 11 26% classed as
problem children ­ 10 years later none of
PDD model
them were worse off ­ suggesting early
P ­ Protest ­ protest for first few hours
negative effects were reduced with
after being separated from mother
alternative emotional care provided
·Negative effects won't always surface ­
D ­ Despair ­ loses interest in
Bilfulco (1992) 249 women who had lost
surroundings & cries and eats and sleeps
their mothers compared to a control
group were more likely to suffer anxiety
when they became adults because they
D-Detachment ­ No longer stressed,
had a trigger (death of mother)
becomes detached from carer…read more

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