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Emotional tie or relationship between two people.

Bowlby's Theory ­
Attachment was an evolved mechanism that ensured the survival of
the child
It is innate innate drive to become attached to caregiver
Caregiveing innate response in adults

Monotropy ­ a child has a primary attachment to one person who is…

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Learning theory
Proposes behaviour is learnt not inborn.
Learning is a relatively permanent behaviour due to past events.

Classical conditioning ­ learn through association
Food > pleasure person who feeds Pleasure
UCS UCR associated with food CR
Attachment bond ­ individual and sense of pleasure

Operant conditioning ­ learning occurs…

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Types of Attachment
The strange situation ­ Mary Ainsworth
To see how children are attached and how they will behave in an unnatural
situation.
There were 8 episodes...

Episodes (3 mins duration) Behaviour
1) Parent and infant play
2) Parent sits while infant plays Use of parent as secure base…

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Another type has been found ­ insecure diagnosed, (lack of consistent
patterns)
The child is unprotected from harm, and when the parent leaves the child is
very distressed.
Cultural Variations
Tronick ­ African tribe
Infants were looked after and breastfed by different women
But still slept with their mother at…

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Disruption of attachment
Robertson and Robertson
Young children had been separated from their primary attachment figure.

Laura ­ was admitted to hospital, parents visited regularly and she begged to
go home, she alternated between period of calm and distress, and also tries
to cope with disappointment of having to stay,…

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By the age of 20, they were above average intelligence and excellent
relationships with their foster family.
It is possible they were discovered young enough and therefore could recover.
Evaluation Genie may have been retarded from birth, and we don't know if she
formed attachment with mother. The Czech twins…

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Gardner ­ a girl who was fed through a tube, so mother never picked her up or
cuddled her as she feared dislodging the tube.
At 8 month the child was severely withdrawn and physically stunted, then
admitted to hospital. There was no change in her diet, but she was…

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Mediating factors

Quality
Robertson and Robertson
If staff: child ratio is poor or there is a high turnover of staff, the children will
be looked after by strangers who can't become substitute figures.
NICHD ­ low quality day care was associated with poor social development.
Even if high quality day…

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Individual differences
Children of shy nature may find day care frightening.
Insecurely attached children may find separation more difficult.

NICHD study found that those whose mothers lacked responsiveness found
day care more difficult.

However...

Egeland and Heister (1995) found that insecurely attached children did best in
day care and securely…

Comments

aeliseh

This is really useful, thank you so much :')

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