everything to do with attachment

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Emotional tie or relationship between two people.
Bowlby's Theory ­
Attachment was an evolved mechanism that ensured the survival of
the child
It is innate innate drive to become attached to caregiver
Caregiveing innate response in adults
Monotropy ­ a child has a primary attachment to one person who is most
important to the child. This person helps with emotional development.
Secondary attachment figure helps with social development.
Schaffer and Emerson ­ found multiple attachments to be the norm rather
than the exception.
Infants may have many attachments but usually still maintain primary
attachment figure.
Sensitive period ­ when infants form attachments, usually in the first 3 years
of life.
Skin to skin hypothesis ­
Routine contact/extended contact
Extended contact ­ showed more soothing behaviour/maintained proximity
Formed closer bond with babies.
Noticeable differences in closeness of relationships up to 1 year after birth.
Shows that there may be a sensitive period immediately after birth.
Extended mothers may have become more involved due to special attention.
Most mothers were unmarried and from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Internal working model ­ infant develops a model about emotional
Involves continuity hypothesis ­ link between early attachment relationship
and later emotional behaviour.
`Love quiz' ­ checklist of childhood relationships with parents and parent's
relationship with each other.
Questionnaire assessed individual's beliefs about romantic love.
Strong relationship between childhood attachment and adult attachment type.
Secure ­ lasting love
Insecure avoidant ­ doubtful, doesn't believe it happens in real life
Insecure resistant ­ fall in love easily but rarely found `true love'
Questionnaires not a reliable source.
Ps may think relationships are different to what they actually are.
Supports Bowlby's theory ­later romantic behaviour associated with
attachment type.
Although not certain that early attachment caused later attachment.

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Learning theory
Proposes behaviour is learnt not inborn.
Learning is a relatively permanent behaviour due to past events.
Classical conditioning ­ learn through association
Food > pleasure person who feeds Pleasure
UCS UCR associated with food CR
Attachment bond ­ individual and sense of pleasure
Operant conditioning ­ learning occurs when we are rewarded.
Dollard and Miller ­ hungry infants are uncomfortable and creates a drive to
reduce the discomfort.
When fed, drive reduced, and feels pleasure (reward).…read more

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Types of Attachment
The strange situation ­ Mary Ainsworth
To see how children are attached and how they will behave in an unnatural
There were 8 episodes...…read more

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Another type has been found ­ insecure diagnosed, (lack of consistent
The child is unprotected from harm, and when the parent leaves the child is
very distressed.…read more

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Disruption of attachment
Robertson and Robertson
Young children had been separated from their primary attachment figure.
Laura ­ was admitted to hospital, parents visited regularly and she begged to
go home, she alternated between period of calm and distress, and also tries
to cope with disappointment of having to stay,
Some children placed in foster care, mothers in hospital, father visits regularly.
The children showed some signs of distress but didn't reject mother on
reunion.…read more

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By the age of 20, they were above average intelligence and excellent
relationships with their foster family.
It is possible they were discovered young enough and therefore could recover.
Evaluation Genie may have been retarded from birth, and we don't know if she
formed attachment with mother. The Czech twins may have formed
attachments with each other. It is difficult to reach firm conclusions.…read more

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Gardner ­ a girl who was fed through a tube, so mother never picked her up or
cuddled her as she feared dislodging the tube.
At 8 month the child was severely withdrawn and physically stunted, then
admitted to hospital. There was no change in her diet, but she was given
attention and soon turned back to normal.
Suggests... emotional disturbance may affect production of hormone.
Day care
Refers to care for children under school age, generally at a nursery or
childminder.…read more

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Mediating factors
Robertson and Robertson
If staff: child ratio is poor or there is a high turnover of staff, the children will
be looked after by strangers who can't become substitute figures.
NICHD ­ low quality day care was associated with poor social development.
Even if high quality day care, staff don't put in same commitment and interest
patents provide. Day care providers may look for peace and quiet.…read more

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Individual differences
Children of shy nature may find day care frightening.
Insecurely attached children may find separation more difficult.
NICHD study found that those whose mothers lacked responsiveness found
day care more difficult.
Egeland and Heister (1995) found that insecurely attached children did best in
day care and securely attached children were more aggressive.
Maybe because insecurely attached children needed compensatory care but
secure children did not need extra attention.…read more



This is really useful, thank you so much :')

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