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"A close relationship between the 2 persons, characterized by mutual affection and desire to
maintain proximity." ­ Schaffer (1993)
Maccoby in 1980 identified 4 key behaviours:
Seeking proximity to primary caregiver
Distress on separation
Pleasure when reunited
General orientation of behaviours towards caregiver
Schaffer and Emerson in 1964 Studied into attachment using 60 infants over a two year period.
They found that stages of attachment are similar despite significant individual differences.…read more

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Pavlov showed CLASSICAL CONDITIONING through the example of salivating dogs. This was
also done with a child and a cookie. To apply this to attachment:
The food given to the infant is the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) and the pleasure is the
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Food is paired with the person feeding the infant which is the conditioned stimulus (CS)
The person feeding is then related to the feeling of pleasure which is now the conditioned
response.…read more

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Harlow's cloth and wire experiment
A surrogate mother for the infant monkey is made out of wire alone and a cloth and wire.
The monkey went to the wire mother for food
However spent the majority of the cloth mother
o If a threatening object occurred the infant would go to the cloth mother
o Infant was seen to explore more when cloth mother was around.…read more

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Konrad Lorenz separated a set of geese eggs. One set to be hatched near mother and one to be
hatched away from mother. When the geese hatched they imprinted on the closest objects within a
1217 hour period. For set one this was the geese mum, for set two it was Lorenz.…read more

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Insecure Avoidant (22%) Type A
Whether the other was in the room or not, the infant's play was not affected by
mother's presence. When the mother did leave the room the infant showed little sign of
distress. When the stranger attempted to interact with infant they rejected the strangers
comfort and avoided contact with mother upon their return.
Insecure Resistant (12%)
When the mother was present the child is very fussy and clingy.…read more

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Even infants have different personalities on infant might have a dependant personality whilst
another might have a more independent personality.
Two Hypothesis according to why there are differences...
1. Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis The reason there are differences is because of the way the
caregiver interacts...
a. Secure responds sensitively & appropriately to child's needs
b. Insecure A Respond too much or too little
c. Insecure B Responds inconsistently
2.…read more

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Strengths Weaknesses
All used `Strange Situation' Standardised Culture does not equal country
procedure so is reliable and consistent.
Media influence non western cultures are
exposed to western idea all the time.
Imposed Etic (designed for use in one culture
that is used in another culture but doesn't
measure same thing.…read more

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86% of thieves that had been diagnosed as affectionless psychopaths had experienced early
and prolonged separation from Mothers.
Only 17% of those not classified as affectionless psychopaths had experienced such
4% of the control group (nonthieves) had experience frequent early separations
Bowlby's findings suggest a link between early separations and later social and emotional mal
adjustment as the affectionless psychopaths were exposed to early and prolonged separation
compared to the control group who had experienced early frequent separations.…read more

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Effects of Day care on Social Development
Clarke and Stewart Day care has a positive effect on the sociability of a child studied 150
children from different social backgrounds and found that children who had been in day care had
more advanced peer relationships and this was a useful experience for later years at school.…read more


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