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Developmental
Psychology
Looks at the way children develop socially,
emotionally, cognitively





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Attachment

"A close relationship between the 2 persons, characterized by mutual affection and desire to
maintain proximity." ­ Schaffer (1993)

Maccoby in 1980 identified 4 key behaviours:
Seeking proximity to primary caregiver
Distress on separation
Pleasure when reunited
General orientation of behaviours towards caregiver

Schaffer and Emerson in 1964 Studied…

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Pavlov showed CLASSICAL CONDITIONING through the example of salivating dogs. This was
also done with a child and a cookie. To apply this to attachment:
The food given to the infant is the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) and the pleasure is the
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Food is paired with the person…

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Harlow's cloth and wire experiment
A surrogate mother for the infant monkey is made out of wire alone and a cloth and wire.
The monkey went to the wire mother for food
However spent the majority of the cloth mother
o If a threatening object occurred the infant would go…

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Imprinting
Konrad Lorenz separated a set of geese eggs. One set to be hatched near mother and one to be
hatched away from mother. When the geese hatched they imprinted on the closest objects within a
1217 hour period. For set one this was the geese mum, for set two…

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when the mother leaves the room the infant gets distressed but warmly greets mother upon
return.

Insecure Avoidant (22%) Type A
Whether the other was in the room or not, the infant's play was not affected by
mother's presence. When the mother did leave the room the infant showed little…

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Even infants have different personalities on infant might have a dependant personality whilst
another might have a more independent personality.

Two Hypothesis according to why there are differences...
1. Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis The reason there are differences is because of the way the
caregiver interacts...
a. Secure responds sensitively &…

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Evaluation
Strengths Weaknesses
All used `Strange Situation' Standardised Culture does not equal country
procedure so is reliable and consistent.
Media influence non western cultures are
exposed to western idea all the time.
Imposed Etic (designed for use in one culture
that is used in another culture but doesn't
measure same…

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Findings
86% of thieves that had been diagnosed as affectionless psychopaths had experienced early
and prolonged separation from Mothers.
Only 17% of those not classified as affectionless psychopaths had experienced such
separations.
4% of the control group (nonthieves) had experience frequent early separations

Conclusion
Bowlby's findings suggest a link between…

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Effects of Day care on Social Development

Sociability
Clarke and Stewart Day care has a positive effect on the sociability of a child studied 150
children from different social backgrounds and found that children who had been in day care had
more advanced peer relationships and this was a useful…

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