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Caregivers (parents)
Quality of bond ­ mother and infant dyad

Attachment is a special kind of emotional bond

What do people do to get attention from the person they're attached to?
a) Infants ­ crying, screaming, mimic, throw things, make noises, put arms out, laugh
b) Older children ­…

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Schaffer's Stages

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Attachment ­ why does it happen?

Genes Learning
(were programmed) Associate mum with food = feel happy
innate Behavioural

The evolutionary perspective
Argues that attachment is innate
Attachments is crucial for survival
Infants need attachments to be fed, cared for and protected
It is because of this that infants…

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Attachments are based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning

Ethology ­ study of animal behaviour

Making an attachment
Happens immediately

Behaviourist Approach
Associating food with feeder
Babies are born with reflex responses to feed when hungry. Over time they
associate the person who feeds them with…

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Operant Conditioning

Which two boxes below relate to Bowlby's evolutionary theory of
A ­ Attachment takes place during the critical period or not at all
B ­ Infants become attached to the person who feeds them
C ­ Infants are innately programmed to form an attachment
D ­ Attachment…

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Strange Situation
Controlled Observation
Bowlby talked about the need for a child to have a secure base
It places the infant in different situations in order to research the quality of
attachment to the caregiver
Says infants display different kinds of behaviours that were indicative of attachment
It systematically…

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AMBIVALENT(unsure Clingy child
)) Upset by separation and seek and reject contact at return
of caregiver

Procedure of the strange situation ­
Stages 1 & 2 ­ Mom and infant enter. Child plays with toys

Stage 3 ­ Stranger enters

Stage 4 ­ Mom leaves. Stranger interacts (Stranger anxiety)

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D The infant goes to the caregiver when she returns but is difficult to comfort

Cross Cultural Variation
Child rearing practises vary...

Culture shapes your behaviour, does this result in different attachment?

BRITAIN 1 72 75…

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60 middle class Japanese boys/girls aged 1 and mum
Stranger situation observation of interactions: mom/stranger (x8)

Secure 68% (original 66%)
Ambivalent 32% (original 12%)
Avoidant ­ zero (original 22%)
90% `infant alone' step stopped as participant's became very upset.

cultural variations do exist (note: Japanese children are…

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Staff weren't sensitive to his needs and he was overwhelmed by his new environment

Robertson and Bowlby investigated young children separated from their mothers and found
that the distress felt by the children fell into three categories called the
protestdespairdetachment (PDD) model


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