Attachment Notes

All notes ive made from my AS Psychology lessons on Attachment.

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Attachment
Caregivers (parents)
Quality of bond ­ mother and infant dyad
Attachment is a special kind of emotional bond
What do people do to get attention from the person they're attached to?
a) Infants ­ crying, screaming, mimic, throw things, make noises, put arms out, laugh
b) Older children ­ confiding, rebelling, `no', putting hand up, strop, cuddle,
c) Adults ­ asking for advice, hug, kiss, ask questions, buy things, visit them, call them
Social releaser = behaviour that grabs attention
The attachment parenting method involves sharing a bed, breastfeeding on demands and
getting as much skin on skin contact as possible with your children.
There are a number of FACTORS that will make it more or less likely that we'll develop an
attachment:

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Schaffer's Stages…read more

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Attachment ­ why does it happen?
Genes Learning
(were programmed) Associate mum with food = feel happy
innate Behavioural
biological
The evolutionary perspective
Argues that attachment is innate
Attachments is crucial for survival
Infants need attachments to be fed, cared for and protected
It is because of this that infants are born with an innate tendency to form an
attachment
Attachment is a reciprocal process ie.…read more

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Attachments are based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning
Ethology ­ study of animal behaviour
Imprinting
Making an attachment
Happens immediately
Behaviourist Approach
Conditioning
Associating food with feeder
Babies are born with reflex responses to feed when hungry. Over time they
associate the person who feeds them with pleasure and this results in a
strong bond. Every time they are fed, it reinforces the connection between
baby and feeder.
Babies cry when they're hungry ­ it's a reflex.…read more

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Operant Conditioning
Which two boxes below relate to Bowlby's evolutionary theory of
attachment?
A ­ Attachment takes place during the critical period or not at all
B ­ Infants become attached to the person who feeds them
C ­ Infants are innately programmed to form an attachment
D ­ Attachment are based on the principles of classical and operant
conditioning…read more

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AMBIVALENT(unsure Clingy child
)) Upset by separation and seek and reject contact at return
of caregiver
Procedure of the strange situation ­
Stages 1 & 2 ­ Mom and infant enter. Child plays with toys
Stage 3 ­ Stranger enters
Stage 4 ­ Mom leaves. Stranger interacts (Stranger anxiety)
Stage 5 ­ Mom returns (reunion behaviour)
Stage 6 ­ Mom leaves. Infant alone (separation protest)
Stage 7 ­ Stranger returns (Stranger anxiety)
Stage 8 ­ Mom returns (reunion behaviour) Stranger leaves.
Observed:
1. Exploration
2.…read more

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D The infant goes to the caregiver when she returns but is difficult to comfort
Cross Cultural Variation
Child rearing practises vary...
Environment
Norms
Traditions
Beliefs
Culture shapes your behaviour, does this result in different attachment?
NO.…read more

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Takahashi
60 middle class Japanese boys/girls aged 1 and mum
Stranger situation observation of interactions: mom/stranger (x8)
Findings:
Secure 68% (original 66%)
Ambivalent 32% (original 12%)
Avoidant ­ zero (original 22%)
90% `infant alone' step stopped as participant's became very upset.
Conclusions
cultural variations do exist (note: Japanese children are carried, sleep with parents for first 2
years and bathe with them too) so stranger situation is not a valid method.
Klaus & Karin Grossman
Germany ­
Secure 1/3
Insecure 2/3
½ avoidant (2.…read more

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Staff weren't sensitive to his needs and he was overwhelmed by his new environment
Robertson and Bowlby investigated young children separated from their mothers and found
that the distress felt by the children fell into three categories called the
protestdespairdetachment (PDD) model…read more

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