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Module 2: Electrons, Bonding and Structure
Spread 1: Evidence For Shells:
Key Definitions:
First Ionisation Energy: The energy required to remove one electron from each atom, in one
mole of gaseous atoms, to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.

Factors Affecting Ionisation Energy:

Atomic Radius: A larger atomic radius…

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The graph above helps provide evidence for shells, due to successive ionisation energies.
The big jump in ionisation energies from the 6th to 7th electron, indicates that the last two
electrons have been removed from a different shell, that is closer to the nucleus. Thus, this element
has six outer…

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Spread 2: Shells and Orbitals:
Key Definitions:
Orbital: A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.

N Shell Electrons

1 1st Shell 2

2 2nd Shell 8

3 3rd Shell 18

4 4th Shell 32

Top Tip: Use the formula (2n²) work out…

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From the second shell onwards, each shell contains three p-orbitals. This gives 3x2 = 6
The shape of a p-orbital is a dumb-bell.

D-Orbitals and F-Orbitals:
From the third shell onwards, each shell contains five d-orbitals. This gives 5x2 = 10 electrons.
From the fourth shell onwards, each…

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Spread 3&4: Sub-shells and Energy Levels:

Electrons always fill orbitals from lowest energy level to highest energy level.
Electrons are always removed from the highest energy level first.
The 4s orbital has a slightly lower energy level than the 3d orbital, so is filled first by electrons.
The 4s and…

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By using this pattern in the periodic table, we can easily find the electron configuration of an
Oxygen is the 4th element in the 2p block. Therefore, the electron configuration would be
If an element has it's highest energy electron in a p subshell, it can be referred…

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Spread 5: Chemical Bonding:
The noble gases make up group zero/eight pf the periodic table. They are extremely stable and
this is why they are so unreactive.
The tendency to acquire a noble gas electron configuration, is called the octet rule. Elements
try to achieve this through sharing or transferring…

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Metallic bonding occurs in compounds consisting of two metals.
Electrons are shared between all the atoms.
Positive metal ions are held in fixed lattice by delocalised electrons.

Spread 7: Ions and the Periodic Table:

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1 -1 -2 -3

Ammonium: NH4+ Hydroxide: OH- Carbonate: CO32- Phosphate: PO43-
Nitrate: NO3- Sulfate: SO42-
Nitrite: NO2- Sulfite: S032-

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Spread 10: Shapes of Molecules and Ions:
Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory:
Each electron pair repels other electron pairs.
The electron pairs push one another as far apart as possible.
Lone pairs repel slightly more strongly than normal bonding electron pairs.

Molecule BF3 CH4 SF6

Number of bonding pairs 3 4 6…


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