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Atomic and electronic structure
Particle Relative mass Charge Position Mass spectrometry
1.Vaporisation: high vacuum vaporises
Proton 1 +1 Nucleus substance as it enters the mass
spectrometer
Neutron 1 0 Nucleus 2.Ionisation: bombardment of sample with
high-energy electrons, forming positive ions
Electron 1/1840 -1 Shells
as electrons are knocked off the…

Page 2

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OE is in p
OE = outermost
orbital- further
electron
from nucleus- Electrons in 3p
so easier to orbital now have to
remove pair up, so e-e
repulsion makes OE
easier to remove




2s subshell is
full so more
energy
required




Overall trend due to:
- More electrons shells shielding…

Page 3

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- Aufbau principle:
- Electrons go into lowest energy orbital first
- Each orbital holds 2 electrons with
opposite spins
- When there are 2 or more same-
energy orbitals, electrons dont pair
up unless they have to
- How electron structure affects chemical
properties in s-block (as an example):…

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