Atomic and electronic structure

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:56
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Atomic and electronic structure
Particle Relative mass Charge Position Mass spectrometry
1.Vaporisation: high vacuum vaporises
Proton 1 +1 Nucleus substance as it enters the mass
Neutron 1 0 Nucleus 2.Ionisation: bombardment of sample with
high-energy electrons, forming positive ions
Electron 1/1840 -1 Shells
as electrons are knocked off the atoms/
molecules (e- + X X+ + 2e-)
3. Acceleration: electric field accelerates ions into instrument
4. Deflection: magnetic field deflects ions- lighter ones are deflected more than heavier ions with the
same charge. Ions with a greater charge will be deflected more as well
5. Detection: ions detected as current. Signal fed to computer. By increasing strength of magnetic
field, ions of increasing mass are detected
Peak at 57 is caused by C4H9+ breaking off
-The Mr of a compound is the
fragmentation peak of the greatest
-Detect and identify unknown
substances (e.g. In medical industry
to identify synthesised compounds
which could be used as drugs)
-Detection of anabolic steroids in
athletes urine
-Identify samples of rocks found on
Mass spectrum for molybdenum shows it has 7 isotopes, of other planets (space research)
which Mb-98 is most common. Ar can be found by finding the -Radioactive dating: detects relative
average mass (multiply each mass by relative abundance abundances of different isotopes
then divide by the total relative abundance)
Evidence for electronic
- IE is always endothermic (e.g. Na(g) Na+(g) + e-)
- Successive IEs provide evidence for quantum shells and the group to which the element belongs
- Subshells when full: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10
- There is 1 s orbital, 3 p orbitals, 5 d orbitals

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OE is in p
OE = outermost
orbital- further
from nucleus- Electrons in 3p
so easier to orbital now have to
remove pair up, so e-e
repulsion makes OE
easier to remove
2s subshell is
full so more
Overall trend due to:
- More electrons shells shielding OE from positive nucleus
- Shells increase distance between nucleus and electrons
- Actual nuclear charge increases, thus so does IE
This is a Group 1 metal (Na),
as seen by jump between 1st
and…read more

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Aufbau principle:
- Electrons go into lowest energy orbital first
- Each orbital holds 2 electrons with
opposite spins
- When there are 2 or more same-
energy orbitals, electrons dont pair
up unless they have to
- How electron structure affects chemical
properties in s-block (as an example):
- They are reactive metals as only
need to lose 1 electron, so they
lose it easily
- Ions have same formulae X+
- Ions have very stable electronic
- Reactivity increases down group as…read more


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