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Page 1

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Atomic Structure
Development of the Molecule
Dalton ­ Elements are made up of invisible atoms, all atoms that make an element have a mass

Thompson ­ He discovered the electron and showed that they were negatively charged (plum pudding
..................model)

Rutherford ­ Most of the positive charge was in a…

Page 2

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Total Abundance


Electron Arrangement
S-Block ­ Outer Electrons are in the S sub-level (Group 1 and Group 2 are s-block)

P-Block ­ Outer Electrons are in the P sub-level (Group 3 ­ Group 7)

D-Block ­ Outer Electrons are in the D sub-level (Transition Methatls)


Ionisation Energy
First Ionisation Energy…

Page 3

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Amount of Substance
Relative Atomic and Relative Molecular Mass
Atomic (Ar) ­ Average mass of an atom/element
1
/
mass of one atom of C12
12


Molecular (Mr) ­ Average mass of a molecule
1
/
mass of one atom of C12
12




Moles and Avogadro's Constant
A mole is…

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Molecular Formula
This is the total number of atoms of each element in each molecule of a substance:

1. Take the empirical formula and Mr that is given
EF: CH
Mr: 78
2. Calculate the sum of the Mr
(12 + 1)n = 78
3. Find n and the molecular…

Page 5

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Mass/Mr of all products




Ionic Equations
This takes an equation and writes it in terms of ions, for example:

CuSO4 (aq)+ 2NaOH (aq) Na
2SO 4 (aq)+ Ca(OH)2 (s)


1. Rewrite the equation with the ions. Solids cannot be written in terms of ions
2- + + 2-

Cu2+ +…

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