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Home Background Factors and Home Background Factors and
Achievement Cultural Deprivation Achievement Material Deprivation
Lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class parents less likely to Examples include; Poor housing, poor diet, lack of books and
read to their children, or give them toys which stimulate learning material.
Restricted speech code Bernstein Implications; Having to leave school at 16 to get a job, having to
Anti Educational Working Class subculture. Favour immediate work whilst studying, unable to afford right uniform
gratification, fatalistic don't believe position can change through Government initiative to tackle problem include: EMA, Raising
own efforts school leaving age and free school meals.
Douglas working class show less interest in childs education
Hyman Working class subculture is a "self-imposed barrier to
Bourdieu Middle Class have cultural Capital
Class School Factors and Achievement Pupil Subcultures
Labelling Meanings or definitions we attach to a person e.g lazy Subculture = Group whose beliefs values and attitudes differ from
Becker Teachers see middle class as ideal pupils those of wider society.
Self fulfilling prophecy idea that a label becomes true just Pro School subcultures accept school values and goals
because it has been made. Example Anti School Subcultures reject schools values and goals.
Rosenthal and Jacobson Did study at a Californian Primary Subcultures tend to lead to self fulfilling prophecy pro school
School. Told teachers they had a test which would identify pupils subcultures work hard and succeed, anti schools subcultures mess
who would make rapid progress. Was in fact just a standard IQ about and fail.
test. Picked 20% of pupils at random -said they'd make rapid Lacey Lower stream pupils form subcultures because school
progress. Returned a year later and nearly half of these pupils had hierarchy denies them of status. Pupils create own hierarchy and
made significant progress because teachers thought those pupils earn status through breaking rules and being disruptive.
would do well they gave them more encouragement and attention
Streaming extreme form of labelling put all pupils of similar
ability in the same class
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The Curriculum Ethnicity External Factors and
Everything taught and learnt in school. Affects achievement in 2
ways. Cultural Deprivation theory. Inadequate primary socialisation.
High and Low status knowledge Keddie Higher streams are Parents fail to equip children with necessary language skills.
given high status knowledge; low streams get low status Subculture into which some black children are socialised is fatalistic
knowledge. believing nothing can change. Matrifocal in structure.…read more
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Gender and Achievement Internal Subject Choices and Gender
Gender role socialisation parents dress boys and girls different,
give them different toys etc
1988 National curriculum introduced girls and boys learn the
same Subjects have a gendered image science mostly male teachers
with male focussed examples e.g football for a globe.
Introduction of coursework seen to favour girls who tend to be
better organised Jobs gendered, so are vocational courses e.g childcare seen for
girls and plumbing seen for boys.…read more
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Theory New Right Educational Policy
Chubb and Moe State education doesn't deliver meritocracy and Phase 1 1870-1944 Education reproduced ascribed status. Middle
this means disadvantaged and ethnic minorities are losing out, class had academic schooling, working class had basic schooling to
disregards local needs with `consumers' (Parents and Pupils) having learn factory skills.
no say, is inefficient wasting resources meaning a less successful Phase 2 1944-1988 shaped by meritocratic principles. 1944
economy. education act, introduced tripartite system.…read more