AS Sociology AQA Unit 2 Education Study Cards

Some study cards for AQA unti 2 AS - Hope they are of some use to you :)

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Home Background Factors and Home Background Factors and
Achievement ­ Cultural Deprivation Achievement ­ Material Deprivation
Lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class parents less likely to Examples include; Poor housing, poor diet, lack of books and
read to their children, or give them toys which stimulate learning material.
Restricted speech code ­ Bernstein Implications; Having to leave school at 16 to get a job, having to
Anti ­Educational Working Class subculture. Favour immediate work whilst studying, unable to afford right uniform
gratification, fatalistic ­ don't believe position can change through Government initiative to tackle problem include: EMA, Raising
own efforts school leaving age and free school meals.
Douglas ­ working class show less interest in childs education
Hyman ­ Working class subculture is a "self-imposed barrier to
Bourdieu ­ Middle Class have cultural Capital
Class ­ School Factors and Achievement Pupil Subcultures
Labelling ­ Meanings or definitions we attach to a person e.g lazy Subculture = Group whose beliefs values and attitudes differ from
Becker ­ Teachers see middle class as ideal pupils those of wider society.
Self fulfilling prophecy ­ idea that a label becomes true just Pro School subcultures accept school values and goals
because it has been made. Example Anti School Subcultures reject schools values and goals.
Rosenthal and Jacobson ­ Did study at a Californian Primary Subcultures tend to lead to self fulfilling prophecy ­ pro school
School. Told teachers they had a test which would identify pupils subcultures work hard and succeed, anti schools subcultures mess
who would make rapid progress. Was in fact just a standard IQ about and fail.
test. Picked 20% of pupils at random -said they'd make rapid Lacey ­ Lower stream pupils form subcultures because school
progress. Returned a year later and nearly half of these pupils had hierarchy denies them of status. Pupils create own hierarchy and
made significant progress ­ because teachers thought those pupils earn status through breaking rules and being disruptive.
would do well they gave them more encouragement and attention
Streaming ­ extreme form of labelling put all pupils of similar
ability in the same class

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The Curriculum Ethnicity ­ External Factors and
Everything taught and learnt in school. Affects achievement in 2
ways. Cultural Deprivation theory. Inadequate primary socialisation.
High and Low status knowledge ­ Keddie ­ Higher streams are Parents fail to equip children with necessary language skills.
given high status knowledge; low streams get low status Subculture into which some black children are socialised is fatalistic
knowledge. believing nothing can change. Matrifocal in structure.…read more

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Gender and Achievement ­ Internal Subject Choices and Gender
Gender role socialisation ­ parents dress boys and girls different,
give them different toys etc
1988 National curriculum introduced ­ girls and boys learn the
same Subjects have a gendered image ­ science mostly male teachers
with male focussed examples e.g football for a globe.
Introduction of coursework seen to favour girls who tend to be
better organised Jobs gendered, so are vocational courses ­ e.g childcare seen for
girls and plumbing seen for boys.…read more

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Theory ­ New Right Educational Policy
Chubb and Moe ­ State education doesn't deliver meritocracy and Phase 1 ­ 1870-1944 Education reproduced ascribed status. Middle
this means disadvantaged and ethnic minorities are losing out, class had academic schooling, working class had basic schooling to
disregards local needs with `consumers' (Parents and Pupils) having learn factory skills.
no say, is inefficient wasting resources meaning a less successful Phase 2 ­ 1944-1988 ­ shaped by meritocratic principles. 1944
economy. education act, introduced tripartite system.…read more


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