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Immobilized Enzymes
· Enzymes that are fixed, bound or trapped on an inert
matrix (e.g. A gel capsule (alginate beads)
· These beads can be packed into glass columns.
Substrate can be added to the top of the column and
reacts with the enzyme as it slowly flows down the
column.
· Can be used again and again when complete
· As enzyme is fixed, doesnt get mixed up with products
easier to separate
· Widely used in industrial processes such as
fermentation as they can be readily recovered for
reuse…read more

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Example Glucose
Enzymes
Glass column
containing
enzyme glucose
isomease
Fructose…read more

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Advantages of Immobilized Enzymes
Immobilizing enzymes with a polymer matrixcreates
a microenvironment
· Can be used at higher temperatures: activity
increases, production increased
· Tolerate wider range of conditions
· Easily recovered: for reuse, reducing costs
· Enzymes can be used together: with differing pH
and temperature optimas
· Easily added / removed: giving greater control
over reaction…read more

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Biosensors
Work on principle that enzymes are specific and
are able to select one type of molecule from a
mixture even in low concerntrations.
Can be used in the rapid and accurate detection
of minute traces of biologically important
molecules…read more

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Biosensors and Diabetes
· One particular use: detection of blood sugar in diabetics.
Steps in using a Biosensor
1. Blood contains a mixture of different molecules
2. Enzyme electrode is placed in blood system
3. Glucose diffuses into the immobilized enzyme layer
4. Oxygen is taken up
5. The rate of oxygen uptake is proportional to the glucose
concentration
6. A digital display shows an accurate concentration of
glucose…read more

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