AS UNIT 2:SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (AQA)

This includes detailed information on:

-Conformity, Kelman, Asch, Smith and Bond, Perrin and Spencer, Zimbardo, Moscovici, Normative social influence, Informational social influence, Social Impact Theory, Obedience, Milgram, Orne and Holland, Why do people obey?, Resiting pressures to conform, Resisting pressures to obey, Locus of control, Rotter, Moscovici et al, Social Crytoamnesia.

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UNIT 2: PSYCHOLOGY (AQA EXAM BOARD)

(SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2)

CONFORMITY ­ MAJORITY INFLUENCE:



Conformity = When we adjust out behaviour/opinions to match more closely to the
behaviours/opinions of a majority of others. Conformity can be both public and
private.



Kelman

Defined 3 types of conformity:
1) Compliance: publically conforming…

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-In 12 critical trials 36.8% of the responses made true by the participants were incorrect.
They conformed to the incorrect responses given by the other group members.

-1/4 of participants never conformed on any trial.

-To show that the stimulus lines weren't ambiguous. Ash conducted a control trial with
no…

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Perrin and Spencer
Carried out Asch's experiment in the 1970's in the UK. They used male students
studying science and engineering. Conformity levels dropped as in the 1970's few
people conformed.
In a different experiment Perrin and Spencer used youths on probation, as the
real participants and the confederates were…

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Moscoivici
He highlighted the importance of minority influence in bringing about social change.
Historical minorities need to be active and consistent in their position to create
change.
Aim: To investigate whether a consistent minority could influence a majority.
Procedure: 32 groups of 6 women in each. 2 women were confederates…

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Social impact theory:

Lantane

Explained why people conform in some situations but not others, based on 3
principles:

1) Number = the greater the number the greater the influence.
2) Strength = the more important the majority is to the individual the
greater their influence.
3) Immediacy = any one…

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-Everybody went to 300 volts.
-35% disobeyed and didn't finish to 450 volts.
Evaluating Milgram's study:
Orne and Holland
Argue that the participants in the experiment were going along with the act (demand
characteristics). Milgram argued that in films of the experiment the participants were
clearly stressed. Also, in a…

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Resisting pressures to obey ­
-Status: Question the motives and status of authority.
-Removal of buffers: Disobedience increases when you can see your actions.
-Disobedient models (social support) ­ Seeing others disobey encourages
disobedience.
-Reactance ­ Attempts to restrict a person's choice can sometimes produce a
boomerang effect.




Locus of…

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