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Bonding and intermolecular Forces:

Electron Pair repulsion theory can help you predict shapes of molecules and ions
Linear 180°
Triganol Planar 120°
Tetrahedral 109.5°
Triganol Bipyramidal 90° and 120°
Octahedral 90°
Lone pairs of electrons count toward an area of electron density but as they repel to a
much greater…

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Nanotubes tube versions of fullerenes however if embedded in polymers will conduct

Physical Properties in relation to intermolecular forces
Carbon chain length increases = boiling temp increases as there are more London
forces which requires more energy to break
Branching increases = boiling temp decreases as less overlap between…

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0 1 +1


Ionization energies decrease down group 2 because
Atomic radii increase so less influence from positive nucleus
Electron shielding increases
Reactions of group 2 elements with:
Oxygen solid metal oxides
Water hydroxides and H2 (only elements below Ca)…

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Flame colours arise when energy from the flame allows the outer electron to jump to a higher
energy level shell and when the electron returns it emits a wave length which is seen as
visible light
1. Mix ground salt with HCl (conc HCl as chlorides are chlorides are soluble…

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Trends in reducing agent strength is shown by the reaction of potassium halides with conc
sulphuric acid

Reaction Observation Test
H2SO4 + KCl KHSO4 + HCl HCl gas is seen as
white fumes
H2SO4 + KBr Initially same as Cl so HBr is SO2 turns acidified
produced, potassium
But HBr…

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Catalysts reduce activation energy by providing a lower energy alternative reacting pathway
which can be shown with a reaction profile

Factors influencing reaction rates can be demonstrated practically:
Evolution of gas
Colour change
Change in mass
Titrimetric analysis
Conductimetric analysis (ions present)

Dynamic state which can only be established…

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o Bioethanol is produced by the fermentation of plants and can be used as a
combustion fuel, raises debates into carbon neutrality and food vs. fuel
Alcohol and Sodium produce hydrogen gas and a white precipitate with is an ionic salt
such as sodium propanoxide
o Alcohol also acts as…

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Chloroalkane can prepared with HCl and shaking with alcohol, as Cl is highly reactive
no catalyst is required

Iodo/Bromoalkanes require an acid catalyst however has sulfuric acid is a very
strong oxidising agent some of the KBr used in the substitution reaction make be
oxidised which reduced the yield. As…

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Bond breaking can occur differently and is usually subject to the polarity of the bond
Homolytic bond fission : electrons are shared between the 2 species in the bond
producing free radicals
Cl2 2Cl
Heterolytic bond fission: electrons are kept by one atom producing electrophiles and
HCl H+ +…




Good document. Very helpful is there more info on group 2 and 7 stuff. Didn't get that part too well.

Thank you

Hashem Khan


What other notes for green chemistry



Isn't phenolphthalein colourless in acid?



Btw "keytone" should be spelt ketone. Also, test for alcohols with PCl5 instead of potassium dichromate (VI), cause the later doesn't react with tertiary alcohols. Besides the occasional error, very clear and concise notes! :)



I suggest that you study about Group 2 and 7 from the Unit 3 notes as they're very helpful and concise.

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