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Key words
· Quantitative data ­ Numerical data
· Qualitative data ­ Depth given due to words
· Ethnographic study ­ Study of people and the way of life by
listening and observing
· Ethical issues ­ Problems occurring due to them going against
· Practical issues ­ Problems occurring due to lack of money, time,
sample etc.
· Triangulation ­ Using more than one study to increase validity
(normally 3)
· Systematic ­ A patterned approach so possible to predict who else
will be chosen
· Valid ­ Shows a true clear picture
· Reliable ­ Repeatable with same results from same method…read more

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Key words cont.
· Depth ­ How much information is included and how much time and
energy is put in
· Bias ­ No-longer neutral
· Representative ­ Small number of people who represent characteristics of
those like them
· Sampling frame ­ Group used in research on a small scale as too costly to
use everyone
· Pilot Study ­ Trial run on a small scale before doing the real thing
· Sampling technique ­ Method used to gather people to get data
· Value free ­ Making or having no value judgments and being neutral
· Rapport ­ A relationship that is formed to increase validity of results from
a interview
· Scientific ­ Based on principles/methods of science and is data gathered
through observing, experimenting and testing the hypothesis…read more

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· Positivists believe sociology should be scientific
as it should involve experiments. They look for
correlations in data and cause & effect
relationship as well as trends
· It's scientific as tends are formed without reasons
· Positivists do this by using quantitative data
methods e.g. structured questionnaires and
· Positivists include sociologists who are
Functionalists…read more

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· Interpreters believe sociology should explain how
and why peoples behaviour is influenced
· This is accomplished by gaining an understanding
by gaining in-depth and detailed data to discover
meaning, motives, and reasons behind behaviour
and interaction
· Interpreters do this by using qualitative data
methods e.g. unstructured questionnaires and
interviews, observations
· They believe sociology IS NOT scientific as human
behaviour can't be measured…read more

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Positivists vs. Interpreters
Theoretical Background Positivists Interpreters
Behaviour Explanation Determined by social factors Humans make sense of
beyond people control situations during human
Aims Discover what causes what Describe and explain
(Quantitative data) behaviour and how people
make sense of situations
Methods ·Closed questionnaires ·Observations
·Structured interviews ·Open Questionnaires
·National Stats. ·Social surveys
Quantitative data =Reliable Qualitative data = Valid…read more

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