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Past Exam Essay Questions:
(d) Examine the reasons for the changes in birth rates
and family size since 1900. (may 2009)…read more

Slide 2

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· Birth Rate (BR) - Number of Births per 1000 of
a population per year.
· Death Rate (DR) - Number of Deaths per 1000
of a population per year.
· Total Fertility Rate (TFR) ­ Number of Women
per 1000 of a population per year having a child
between the ages of 15-44.
· Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) - Number of
children per 1000 of a population per year that
die before the age of one.…read more

Slide 3

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Britain's Births and
· BR 1990 = 28.7
· BR 2007 = 10.7
· TFR 1960 = 2.95
· TFR 2006 = 1.84
· Britain has had 3 Baby Booms:
· - WW1 - WW2 - 1960's- Summer of love
· And has had 3 Death Fluctuations:
· - WW1 - WW2 - 1918- Influenza Epidemic…read more

Slide 4

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Decline in Birth
Rate Because of...
Changes in the position of women
· Equality - Laws, employment, education,
in the family, contraception & abortions,
easy access to divorce
Decline in Infant Mortality Rate
· Decline in this, no need to replace lost
children as in the past.…read more

Slide 5

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Decline in Birth
Rate Cont...
Economic Liability
· In the past children where economic assets, but
because of laws and prolonged schooling
children are dependent longer. Children are also
now more expensive, e.g. need expensive toys
Child Centeredness
· Smaller families, more focus on the children they
have as childhood special period, its quality not
quantity.…read more

Slide 6

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Reasons for Declining
Death Rate
Improved Nutrition, McKeown
· However he failed to say why men live longer
than women
Medical Improvements, Tranter
· Improved medical knowledge, as well as
Public Health measures
· e.g. Clean Air Act
Social Changes
· E.g. Jobs, Asbestos and mining.…read more

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Great resource. 

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