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CHILDHOOD!
Past Exam Essay Questions:
(e) Examine the arguments and evidence in favour of the view that
childhood is socially constructed. (Jan 2002)
(e) Examine the extent of, and the reasons for, changes in the position
of children since industrialisation. (Jan 2004)
(d) Examine the reasons for the changes in the position of children in
the family in society (may 2006)
(e) Examine the reasons for changes in the social position of children
since industrialisation. (may 2008)
(e) Examine the ways in which childhood can be said to be socially
constructed. (Jan 2009)…read more

Slide 2

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The British Child.
Pilcher ­ Childhood is a distinct life stage, separated from
that of an adult.
Childhood is a `golden age' of innocence ­ children must be
protected/quarantined from the adult world.
Separated by:
· Laws ­ age restrictions and welfare state for parents
· Different Rules
· Different toys and food
· Prolonged education to 16 ­ seen as children longer
· Child centeredness…read more

Slide 3

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CROSS CULTURAL
­ Trobriand Islands
Malinowski ­ Trobriand Island
· Free to engage in sexual activity
· Non-Subservient to parents
Brazil and Peru
· Gangs, violence and theft
Sierra Leone
· Child soldiers ­ Socialised…read more

Slide 4

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HISTORICAL ­
Medieval
Medieval Society ­ Aries
"As soon as a child could live without its nanny or his
cradle rocker he belonged to the adult society"
· Childhood Concept didn't exist
· When no longer an infant considered an adult
· Included in sex, fighting and work
· Child was referred to as `it'
· High infant mortality ­ parents not close to children.
AO2 ­ There was childhood in the middle ages
however it was different to our concept today.…read more

Slide 5

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REASONS FOR
CHANGES
· Compulsory Prolonged Schooling ­ increased
dependency
· Laws restricting children from work ­ gone from
economic assets to economic liabilities
· Decline in infant mortality rate ­ parents can
invest more emotionally with their children and
also have fewer children
· Laws to restrict ­ e.g. drinking age, enforces that
children are different.…read more

Slide 6

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THE EFFECT OF
INDUSTRIALISATION
· Need of an educated work force ­
Schooling crucial
· Allows for higher living standards and
welfare ­ decline in infant mortality.…read more

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