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HOW ARE POTHOLES
FORMED? The high
turbulence causes
the rocks to swirl
Fragments of stone and Occur in the upper
around quickly.
pebble whirl around due to course where there
high velocity , the rocks are are fast flowing water
drilling into the river bed in a swirls and vertical
circular motion. Traction erosion is dominant.
occurs for these pebbles to
collect together.
Hollow holes are
formed due to
The rocks moving abrasion and the
around cause drilling action.
smoothing so the
hollow hole has
very rounded
edges.
The holes
continue to
expand and
eventually they
merge creating a
larger pothole.…read more

Slide 3

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HOW DOES BRAIDING
OCCUR? Braided channels
occur due to
fluctuations in
Heavy rain and meltwater discharge levels, low
causes a high velocity, velocity.
this then causes a large Deposition occurs
amount of sand and small regularly in braided
stones to be carried, this river channels due to a
causes a high load in the low energy in the
river. lower course.
The water flow slows
down in some sections These small
causing sediment to be islands between
deposited, this is also channels are
causes by low discharge. known as
This sediment then blocks "EYOTS".
the stream causing a
lower velocity.
The stream then overflows the
banks and forms new channels,
then the stream splits into many
diverging streams, they then
converge together and diverge
again. Many distributaries are
formed.…read more

Slide 4

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HOW ARE RAPIDS
FORMED?
A sloping gradient in
the upper course is
causes by vertical
erosion due to high
potential energy.
The river starts of gently
sloping but becomes
more and more sloped
due to less resistant rock
bring eroded.
There are several bands of
rock that are less resistant
and resistant. A high
turbulence causes these rocks
to be eroded, this then
increases the gradient
causing a high velocity due to
higher potential energy.…read more

Slide 5

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HOW ARE WATERFALLS
FORMED? (STEP 1)
Waterfalls start to occur in
the upper course where
there are bands of less
resistant and resistant
rock.…read more

Slide 6

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HOW ARE WATERFALLS
FORMED? (STEP 2) This less resistant rock
is eroded causing a step
in the river, this then
causes a higher velocity
due to a higher potential
energy.…read more

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