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John Stuart Mill ­
Utilitarianism ·Rule Utilitarianism ­ there are strong and weak
rules.
Jeremy Bentham ­ ·Strong rules ­ must always be followed
· Industrial Revolution ·Weak rules ­ are more flexible
· Act Utilitarianism - take every act
seperately and look at the ·There are higher and lower pleasures
consequences of each ·"Better to be a man dissatisfied than a pig
· He wanted to define right and wrong satisfied" ­ Humans strive for the higher
· Happiness = pleasure ­ pain pleasures like music and opera yet a pig is happy
· He came up with the Hedonic Calculus with lower pleasures like food and water
to help people to measure the ·Qualitative ­ he looks at the quality of the
consequences of an action ­ 2 of the
criteria are intensity and duration happiness not the amount
· Principle of utility ­ `the greatest good Strengths ­
for the greatest number of people'
· Quantitative ­ his theory looks at the ·Common desire to protect the majority
amount of happiness ·Accepted across many religions
·Straightforward and natural to weigh up
Preference Utilitarianism ­ R.M.Hare consequences
·We should always take the
Weaknesses ­
preferences of the individual into
·Exploitation of the minority
account when making decisions
·Difficult to weigh up the consequences
Negative Utilitarianism ­ Karl Popper ·Prima facie obligation ­ we always put our
·We should try to promote the least family and friends first
amount of evil and so, protect the
minorities…read more

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Religion and morality
FOR AGAINST
Thomas Aquinas- Terrorism ­
· Wrote the Summa Theologica ·People are `religious' yet when they
· Believed that we have morality as God commit a terrorist act, they aren't being
is the perfect goodness and we are a
`pale reflection' of this moral at all
Immanuel Kant- Euthyphro Dilemma ­
· Believed that we know that God exists ·Does God command X because it is good,
as morlaity exists or is X good because God commands it? ­
· Humans strive to become the Summum This proves God is either not omniscient or
Bonum which is the perfect goodness he is whimsical
Exodus 20 ­
Westboro Baptist Church ­
· The 10 Commandments ­ full of morals
and are in the Bible which shows an ·These follow DCE yet aren't moral ­ e.g.
obvious link When they picquet a dead soldier's funeral
· Divine Command Ethics Job 1 ­
Henry Newman ­ ·Why would God let the Devil tempt Job to
· We are moral because God acts in us test his loyalty? If he was all loving
through our conscience
(omnibenevolent), he wouldn't allow such
things to happen…read more

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Strengths ­
The Design Argument ·Fits in with God of
Aquinas ­ Swinburne ­ classical theism
· Wrote the Summa Thelogica ·Providence ­ everything is provided ·Empiricial
­ this is his 5th Way for us in order to live, there must be a ·A posteriori
· Analogy ­ archer and the designer ·The analogies
arrow. Like the arrow, we
need to be shown the way ·Probability ­ it is more probable that make is simple to
and pushed in a certain there is a designer for the universe than understand
direction in order to reach it just being chance. RUM - rational Weaknesses/ Criticisms
where we need to go. thought, unlikely that it was chance,
· Qua reality ­ everything Richard Dawkins ­
man has higher emotions than other ·`illusion' of design
follows natural laws
Paley ­ animals so it must have been made for Charles Darwin ­
· Analogy ­ watch. The watch, man ·If something can
just like the human eye and Tennant ­ evolve, it doesn't need
the universe, is put together ·Aesthetic ­ the world is more a designer
in a very precise and beautiful than is needed for survival so Hume ­
complex way. If it had been
put together any other way, there must be a designer ·No real point of
it wouldn't work. This means ·Anthropic ­ anthropos means human comparison for
that it must have had a beings. Everything is given to us so that analogies
designer. Paley says that the we can live
designer of the universe ·Intelligent designer
must be God. not needed ­ could be
· Qua purpose ­ everything spun by a huge spider
has a purpose…read more

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Miracles Hume ­
·"trangression of a law of
Rejection on moral grounds ­
Wiles
Richard Swinburne- nature"
If God helps some people, why
· Miracles need some R. F. Holland ­
kind of religious ·`a coincidence can be taken doesn't he help others with bigger
significance religiously as a sign and called a problems?
· Analogy ­ feather,
childs toy box. There' miracle' Problems with miracles ­ Hume
d be no religious ·Analogy ­ boy on the train
significance in moving tracks, driver of the train faints ·Witnesses are unreliable
these. and automatically releases the ·Extraordinary ­ humans love it
brakes. This saved the boys life ·Ignorant nations witness
Aquinas ­
miracles
·Things done by God that
·Religions can't all be right
nature can't do ­ parting Criticisms of Hume
of the Red Sea ·Nowadays there are reliable witnesses
·Things done by God that ·Why can't all religions be right?
nature can do but not in ·Hume never says how a person should respond if they witness a
that order ­ healings that miracle
are instant
·Things done by God that Why people believe in miracles ­
he does without the use of ·Ockham's Razor ­ if the fact that it was a miracle is the
natural laws ­ a woman easiest outcome, believe it
becoming pregnant that ·Consistent with the nature of God
was told she couldn't ·If it was a result of answered prayers
conceive…read more

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