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AS Psychology Notes
Cognitive Memory

Duration of STM:

Doesn't last long ­ 18 seconds.
Rehearsal keeps information in STM.
Will eventually become long term.

Studies of duration of STM:

Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959) conducted a study of the duration of STM. They used
24 university students. They tested their…

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Duration of LTM:

LTM refers to memories that last anywhere from 2 hours to 100 years
Constant rehearsal could keep information in long term memory

Studies of duration of LTM:

Bahrick et al. 1975, demonstrated a study testing the duration of LTM. People of various
ages were asked to put…

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The serial position effect:

Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) used free recall of a list of 20 items combined with an interference
task to show that there are 2 processes involved in retrieving information. They showed lists
of 20 words one at a time and had subjects recall the words under…

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you go on. For example, doing a complex sum in your head.
The working memory model consists of 4 components: central executive, phonological loop,
visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer.

Central executive:

Function: drives the system, decides how attention is directed, allocates the resources, has
no storage capacity, has limited capacity…

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neither visual nor phonological and that draw on long-term memory.

Strengths of the Working Memory Model:

Unlike some other models (e.g., the MSM), the working memory model explains not only
the storage, but also the processing of information.
The model proposes specific and separate functions and subsystems, so new predictions…

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hit or contacted. The researchers found that the more forceful the word was, the higher the
speed estimated was. With the word `smashed', 40.1 mph was estimated and with the word
`bumped', 31.0 mph was estimated. This shows how misleading questions can influence
answers. This was also a lab experiment…

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Age of witness: This is important to test as nowadays children are becoming more evident in
courtrooms as child abuse increases. Parker and Carranza compared the ability of primary
school children and college students to correctly identify a target individual following a slide
sequence of a mock crime. This was…

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Research was done into the effectiveness of the cognitive interview; a meta -analysis of 53
studies found that when the cognitive interview was used, there was an increase of 34% in
the amount of correct information recalled in comparison with standard interviewing
techniques. However, most of these studies tested volunteer…

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remember images but could remember words. Also, participants were given 100 cards with 2
unrelated words (e.g. cat and brick). Participants who thought of an image linking the two
recalled 80% of the words while those with no images remembered only 45%, (Bower,


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