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· Behaviour and experience can be explained by physiological
· This approach investigates the brain, nervous system and
other biological factors e.g. hormones…read more

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· Maguire et al- relationship between the hippocampus in the
brain and memory(in taxi drivers)
· Sperry- the behaviour and experiences of people who have
had their brains separated into 2 halves
· Dement & Kleitman's- what happens when we sleep…read more

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healthy general
MAGUIRE ET AL medical, neurological,
and psychiatric
o Aim: To investigate whether changes could be detected in the brains of the taxi
drivers(and those with extreme experience of spatial navigation) and to further
investigate the functions of the hippocampus in spatial memory
o Participants: SELF SELECTING sample16 healthy, right-handed male London taxi
driver's who had all passed "the knowledge" & had been licenced for at least 18
months (taxi drivers rely a lot on spatial memory to navigate around London)
o Compared to 50 healthy, right-handed male non-taxi drivers <- the control group
o NATURAL (but quasi sounds smarter) experiment independent variable (taxi/non-
taxi driver) wasn't changed
o INDEPENDENT MEASURES design because they were tested in only 1 condition
o Data collected using MRI scans about anatomy of brain produced picture of brain…read more

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o Measured by pixel counting scans of the 16 taxi drivers and 16 age-matched controls
o Voxel-based morphology (VBM) was used in this study to measure the density of grey
matter in the brain
o Results: the right POSTERIOR hippocampi in the taxi drivers were significantly LARGER
than in the control group
o The ANTERIOR hippocampal region was SMALLER in the taxi drivers than the control
o Hippocampi volume correlated with the amount of time spent as a taxi driver
o This was POSITIVELY in the right posterior and NEGATIVELY in the right anterior
o (weaknesses) Argued that the study demonstrates the plasticity of the hippocampus in
response to environmental demands
o Taxi drivers may have more spatial memory because they had it anyway, and chose a job
that suited them.
See top link ->…read more

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Maguire et al. were attempting to demonstrate the plasticity of
the brain. This refers to changes that occur in the organisation
of the brain as a result of experience.
The researchers studied the hippocampus of London taxi
drivers because they were interested to see if it would change
because of their high dependence on navigational skills
Finding relationships between structure of hippocampi and
navigational skills (sMRI scans)…read more

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