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Psychology Revision!

Memory

Multistore model






Strengths
Research evidence
There is a range of evidence supporting the multistore model.
Application
The model has been useful in terms of practical application.
Explanatory power
The model can explain some important facts about memory, such as
why we remember things better if we rehearse…

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Created by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch (1974)
Relates to STM.

Experiment
The `two task' experiment which Baddeley conducted in 1986 was an
experiment consisting of giving a set of participants two sets of tasks to
complete both using STM.
1. digit recall
2. simple logic question

According to multistore…

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Controlling system
Supervises subsystems
Decides priority to what is happening decides whats required
Coordinates with LTM to retrieve when needed.
Communicates with subsystems

Memory improvement

Clustering putting a group of words similar to each other together
making it easier to remember words improves LTM

Hierarchies putting words into an order…

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Unreliable the witness can state that something was the care
when it was not or vice versa (Lie)
Anxiety (probably during the event itself) making the person focus
on only one aspect of the event
False memory syndrome blanking out some memories or creating
others
Leading questions putting a question…

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Attachment is an intense emotional relationship, specific to two
people, which endures over time, and where prolonged separation
produces stress and sorrow.

Monotropy is a child's display of a strong innate tendency to become
attached to one particular figure (Bowlby)

Positive effects of childcare
Early entry into daycare is beneficial…

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Type C ambivalent attachment is characterised by contact and
interacting resisting behaviour in the reunion episodes with mother
(blanking/ignoring)

Type D disorganised attachment was added by Main and
Solomon (1990) and is characterised by disorganised or disoriented
behaviour inconsistent and often bizarre responses during reunion
and separation (doesn't fit in…

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focuses on issues that are meaningful and important to the
participants
can be used in situations where it is inappropriate to use
quantitative methods (counselling, clinical psychology)
Negatives
hard to replicate
difficult to analyse
hard to control extraneous variables
difficult to establish cause and effect


Numerical accounts (quantitative data)
Positives…

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2. Deception deliberately providing false information is seen a
unethical
3. The right to withdraw if the participant feels uncomfortable, or
distressed they should have the right to withdraw.
4. Protection from physical and psychological harm the
participant should be in the same state they were in before the
experiment…

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