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Memory
The Case of HM
Brain surgery to try and cure his epilepsy. Left with severe amnesia and cannot remember past
events after the operation.
His short term memory is normal but he is unable to transfer information to long term memory.
This case suggests that short term memory and…

Page 2

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Suggested that capacity for STM is 7 plus or minus 2 items. He called this the `magic
number'. He also suggested the method of `chunking' ­ grouping information to make it easier to
remember.

Soloman Shereshevsky ­ capacity of LTM
Russian journalist with good recollection because of his synesthesia. Could…

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Central executive ­ decides which information to send to each slave system. Has limited capacity but
is flexible.
Articulatory control system ­ rehearsal mechanism. It is a verbal rehearsal loop that holds the
words we are preparing to speak.
Phonological store ­ recieves auditory information and stores it in an…

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Vague study.

Multi-Store Model
:)
Influential and useful
Much evidence showing distinct types of memory store
The serial postion effect, suggested by Murdock provides support for 2 seperate memory
stores
Case studies support separate memory stores
:(
More rehearsal does not ensure that information is transferred from STM to LTM…

Page 5

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Juries place emphasis on EWT but there is a lot of evidence to suggest it is unreliable.
Wells et al found that at least 5 people in the US have been sentenced to death after being wrongly
convicted due to EWT.

Anxiety

Loftus et al 1987 ­ The Weapons Effect…

Page 6

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Children don't tend to correct mistakes made by adults (demand characteristics)


Poole & Lindsay 2001 ­ Age
Ppts: children aged 3-8
Took part in science demonstration, then were read a story by their parents. Story had some of the
same information as the demo but also had some new information.…

Page 7

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Hypnosis ­ helps recover information in unconscious mind
Problems: unethical (reliving trauma on a deeper level)
Physiological effects eg, headaches
Psychological effects (don't feel like same person after)
Open to suggested so can be easily influenced

Reconstructions ­ remake of scene aimed at witnesses/general public to trigger memory
Problems: may…

Page 8

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Evaluation of Cognitive Interview
:)
Helpful for police and courts etc
Lots of lab and field support (eg. Fisher et al 1990)
:(
Doesn't always work for children as they need more structure
The longer the interval, the less effective the interview
May cause more harm to witness than standard…

Page 9

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It emphasises role models and the presence of others.
Children observe and imitate others.
Vicarious learning ­ learning through other's successes and failures
:)
Experience and observation of children tells us that his does happen
Useful because it emphasises the use of role models
:(
Reductionist - Ignores role of…

Page 10

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Shaffer & Emerson ­ Phases of Attachment
Pre-Attachment Phase ­ 0-3 months
Babies develop bonds with others and have a preference to people compared to objects and
events, and show this by smiling

Indiscriminate Attachment Phase ­ 3-7/8 months
Babies discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar people

Discriminate Attachment Phase ­…

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