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Defining Abnormality

Deviation from social norms:
All societies have their own standards of behaviour and attitudes known as social norms which are expected to be
followed by its members. This definition therefore names anyone deviating from these norms as abnormal.


If a person does not conform to social norms,…

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Cognitive Approach to Psychopathology


Cognition precedes emotional and behavioural response, so people react differently depending on internal
Mental disorders are the result of faulty thought processes.
Faulty and irrational thinking prevents the individual from behaving adaptively as they exert influence over
emotions and behaviours thus leading to disorders.…

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Ethical concerns with CBT as it can be seen as being to directive. Therapists can abuse their power of control
over their patients by forcing them into a certain mode of thinking. And clients can become too dependent on
their therapist.
CBT is particularly useful as a treatment, as it…

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Each manifest thought, or behaviour hides a hidden motive or intention. Each hidden motive for our
behaviours reflects our instincts and early experiences particularly before the age of five.
Anxiety is caused by conflicts between the id, ego and superego.
Relieved by use of ego defences such as repression (shifting…

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There is a reason why those memories are repressed ­ ethical issues ­ psychological harm that the patient is
suffering from.
Psychoanalysis may only benefit certain clients ­ the young, attractive, verbal, intelligent and successful ­ and
is more likely to be effective with clients who have a positive attitude…

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Classical conditioning people learn to associate two stimuli that occur together e.g. Pavlov's Dogs. Can
account for development of phobias, e.g. little albert study when little albert associated the loud noise with
the rat and became fearful due to the noise and the rat being presented together.
A consequence can…

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suggesting a genetic link. Holland et al found that if one twin had an eating disorder there was an increased
risk of the other twin also having an eating disorder.
Infections can damage the brain and cause it to malfunction. General Paresis, where a person experiences
delusions and bizarre behaviours,…

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- Antidepressant drugs such as Prozac which work by increasing the production of neurotransmitter
- Antianxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines slow the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) reducing
hserotonin activity and thus anxiety and increasing relaxing. And beta blockers act on the autonomic nervous
hsystem to reduce…




Good :) just need to put studies in such as who made the approach up and back up studies 



A really great summary of abnormality for AQA(a) students - thank you Esta!

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