AS Politics Unit 2.1: The Constitution

This is a PowerPoint based on a revision PowerPoint my politics teacher made and also information from the AQA book. For most things there are around 6 points to make, and this can be turned into a '6-pack'; a simple way to remember 6 things in an exam. I hope this helps!

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Unit 2: Governing Modern
1. The Constitution

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5 Things to learn:
1. What is a Constitution?
2. Characteristics of the British Constitution
3. Sources of the British Constitution
4. Constitutional change in the UK
5. An evaluation of the constitutional changes
in the UK since 1997

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1: What is a Constitution?
A system of rules and principles that govern
an organisation (like a club, or Britain)
An example of an early form of the British
constitution is the Magna Carta in 1215. This
was Britain's first steps to democracy:
A committee of 25 barons at any…

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What format do constitutions have?
1. A preamble which states what the
constitution sets out to do and what it stands
2. An Organisational section contains the
main institutions of the government
3. A Bill or Rights which states individual
freedoms and rights
4. A principle of 'amendment' explaining…

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What is the purpose of
1. To provide legitimacy for those in power
2. To limit state power and protect freedoms
3. To encourage stable government by laying
down rules that everyone knows
4. To show the values and ideals of a state
5. To set out the central…

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2: Characteristics of the British
The separation and fusion of powers
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) identified
the three main areas of the government which
he insisted should be separate to avoid
Legislature: The law-making body
Executive: Directs the nation's affairs
Judiciary: Judges on violation of the law

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USA - Separation of Powers
Legislature - A bicameral congress made up of
the Senate and the House of Representatives

Executive - The President

Judiciary - The courts

Each power is separate and exercises checks
on each other

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UK - Fusion of Powers
Legislature - A bicameral system made up of
the House of Commons and the House of

Executive - The PM and the senior MPs who
also sit in the legislature

Judiciary - Judges (until 2009 the 'law lords' sat
in the House of Lords)

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Characteristics of the British
1. It is uncodified - it is not written down on one single document
2. It is flexible - it can be changed with a simple majority, whereas an
entrenched constitution has to have a super majority (usually 2/3)
3. It is unitary - the…

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3: The sources of the UK
1. Statute law - Acts of Parliament that are
2. Common law - Based on past customs and
precedence (when Judges interpret laws and
further legal cases use that interpretation) i.e the
law has evolved
3. Conventions - Unwritten rules that are…


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