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Conservation of Energy


Ep= change in gravitational potential energy in joules (J)

m = mass in kilograms (kg)

g = gravitational field strength in newtons per kilogram ( N kg-1)

h = change in height in metres (m)




Ek = kinetic energy in joules (J)

m = mass in kilograms…

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P = power in watts (W)

W = work done in joules (J)

t = time in seconds (s)

Newton's Laws of Motion
1) Newton's first law

An object continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by a resultant force.

2)…

Page 3

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t = change in time in seconds (s)

3) Newton's third law

When two objects interact they exert equal and opposite forces on each other.

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Motion along a straight line
In the equations below;

v = velocity in metres per second (ms-1)

s = change in displacement in metres (m)

t = change in time in seconds (s)

a = acceleration in metres per second per second (ms-2)




In the equations below;

v = final…

Page 5

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Centre of Mass
The centre of mass of an object is the point at which all the mass of the object seems to act. In a uniform gravitational field this is the same point as the centre of
gravity of the object which is where all the weight of the…

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Moments
The moment (or torque) of a force about a turning point is the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance to the force from the turning point.
Moments are measured in newton metres (Nm).
Moment = F d

F = the force in newtons (N)

d = perpendicular distance in…

Page 7

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sum of anticlockwise moments = sum clockwise moments
F1 x d1 = F2 x d2
OR




sum of anticlockwise moments = sum clockwise moments
F1 x d1 = (F2 x d2) + (F3 x d3)
Couples
A couple is two equal forces which act in opposite directs on an object…

Page 8

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Scalars & Vectors
A scalar has only a magnitude (size) whereas a vector has both a magnitude and a direction.
Example;

9 ms-1 is a scalar it has magnitude only (speed is a scalar)

9 ms-1 North is a vector as it has both a magnitude and a direction (velocity…

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Two forces of 41N and 60N act at 90o to each other.

STEP 1 ­ calculate the resultant force R




STEP 2 ­ calculate the angle
Resolving Vectors
We can resolve a vector into two components at 90o to each other.
For example we may wish to resolve a velocity…

Page 10

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Horizontal component (x)




Vertical component (y)

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