AS OCR Biology: Regulation of Blood Glucose

AS OCR Biology: Regulation of Blood Glucose

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  • Created on: 25-05-11 00:12
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The Regulation of Blood Glucose
The Pancreas:
Lies below stomach
Has both Exocrine and Endocrine functions.
Secretion of Enzymes (Exocrine Function):
Majority of cells in pancreas manufacture and release digestive enzymes
These cells are found surrounding tiny tubules small groups; into which they
secrete the digestive enzymes into.
The tubules join up to make the pancreatic duct; the duct carries the fluid
containing the enzymes into the first part of the small intestine.
Fluid in pancreatic duct contains (Pancreatic Juice):
Amylase ­ a carbohydrase
Trypsinogen ­ an inactive protease
Lipase
The fluid also contains Sodium hydrogencarbonate, making it alkaline and
helping neutralise contents of the digestive system that come from the acidic
stomach.

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The Secretion of Hormones (Endocrine Function):
Area of pancreas called Islets of Langerhans
contain:
o cells ­ manufacture and secrete the
hormone glucagon.
o cells ­ manufacture and secrete the
hormone insulin.
The islets are well supplied with blood capillaries
and so the hormones are directly secreted into
the blood.…read more

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The increased entry of glucose lowers its level in the blood as its being used (e.g.
glycogenesis, respiration) and as a result the concentration of glucose in the
blood drops to the desired level.
If blood glucose levels are too low:
Low blood glucose concentration detected by cells
cells then secrete glucagon
Glucagon then travels in the blood and binds to the specific receptor sites of
specific target cells (e.g.…read more

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Questions
1. Hepatocytes have specific receptors for specific hormones to ensure that the
correct actions take place (e.g. for cells glycogenolysis)
2. First Messengers:
Insulin
Glucagon
Second Messengers:
Cyclic AMP
Key Definitions
Pancreatic Duct ­ tube that collects secretion from the exocrine cells in the pancreas
and carries fluid (pancreatic juice) to the small intestine.
Islets of Langerhans ­ small patches of tissue in the pancreas that secrete
hormones.
cells ­ manufacture and secrete the hormone glucagon.
cells ­ manufacture and secrete the hormone insulin.…read more

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