Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

attachment is innate it should therefore be found in all cultures: Tronick et al (1992) ­ observed African
and adaptive tribe that live in extended family groups. The infants are looked after and breastfed
by various women but babies sleep with mothers at night. The infants had one
primary attachment. Study shows that attachment is universal because childcare
practices/cultures still result in development of attachment and so it is innate and
adaptive.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Schaffer and Emerson
the key to attachment (1964) observed 60 babies from mainly working class families in Glasgow. Strongly
attached infants had mothers who responded quickly to their demands and who
offered their child the most interaction. Weakly attached infants had mothers who
failed to interact. Harlow (1959): monkey study. Monkeys formed one way
attachment to the wire mother. this gave maladaptive later behaviour.
Demonstrates importance of sensitive interaction and consequences of not forming
the attachment.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Belsky & Rovine (1987): temperamental differences contribute to attachment.
Assessed babies aged 1 to 3 days old and found a link between psychological
behaviours and later attachment type ­ infants who were calmer and less anxious
were more likely to be securely attached. This therefore is arguing that attachment is
based on personality rather than as Bowlby hypothesised.
but, Nachmais (1996): found no association between attachment and strength of
early attachment type, hence attachment may very well be based on parental
sensitivity.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

EPISODE BEHAVIOUR ASSESSED (scored for intensity on
a scale of 1-7)
parent and infant play
parent sits while infant plays use of parent as a secure base
stranger enters and talks to parent stranger anxiety
parent leaves, infant plays, stranger offers separation anxiety
parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort, reunion behaviour
stranger leaves
parent leaves, infant alone separation anxiety
stranger enters and offers comfort stranger anxiety
parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort reunion behaviour
attachment style behaviour
secure attachment associated with sensitive, responsive, accepting,…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

­ difficulty using mother as secure base.
interaction respond to separation from their caregiver with immediate and intense
distress and actively avoids stranger.
on reunion, conflicting desires for and against contact. May angrily resis
being picked up while trying to find other ways to endure proximity; no
easily controlled.
ethics relevant research findings
the intention of the strange situation is to
cause mild distress.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Hazan and Shaver and Prior and Glazer.
arguments for the strange situation arguments against the strange situation
It has provided a unique tool for measuring Not clear that it can be used in all cultures.
attachment so that causes and effects can be Culturally biased to united states. Findings of
studied. Technique has been used and Van Ijenddorn and Kroonbergy study show
adapted in other research that conclusions may not be representative.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Ainsworth (1967) UGANDA. Naturalistic Grossmann and Grossmann (1991).
observation, observed universals in GERMANY. Infants tended to be classified
attachment behaviour. Infants in Uganda as insecurely rather than securely attached.
use mothers as secure base for exploration Different childbearing practices. Germany
and mothers of securely attached infants keep interpersonal distances so children
showed greater sensitivity towards infants don't engage in proximity seeking.
than those who were insecurely attached. Behaviour in the strange situation could
therefore appear insecurely attached.
Tronick et al (1992).…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

SS meta-analysis means that drawing together
exactly as it was first designed, the findings findings cannot be reliably compared
could be compared
truly cross cultural. Made sure to have a some samples are very small so not able to
mix of individualist/collectivist. generalise to population ­ biased.
western technique so only suitable for
western children.
ethical issues
1.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

­ research not always conducted by indigenous researcher. Even when
they are indigenous, they may belong to different cultures.
the tools/techniques used to measure behaviour ­ such tools/techniques are related to
cultural assumptions of the test/technique designer. The SS and its underlying
assumptions are rooted in American culture. Imposed etic is the use of a technique
designed in one culture and imposed on another.…read more



A very colourful and highly useful set of notes!

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »