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attachment is innate it should therefore be found in all cultures: Tronick et al (1992) ­ observed African
and adaptive tribe that live in extended family groups. The infants are looked after and breastfed
by various women but babies sleep with mothers at night. The infants…

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sensitive caregiving is there should be consequences if caregiving is not sensitive: Schaffer and Emerson
the key to attachment (1964) observed 60 babies from mainly working class families in Glasgow. Strongly
attached infants had mothers who responded quickly to their demands and who
offered their child the most interaction. Weakly…

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Belsky & Rovine (1987): temperamental differences contribute to attachment.
Assessed babies aged 1 to 3 days old and found a link between psychological
behaviours and later attachment type ­ infants who were calmer and less anxious
were more likely to be securely attached. This therefore is arguing that attachment is…

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EPISODE BEHAVIOUR ASSESSED (scored for intensity on
a scale of 1-7)
parent and infant play
parent sits while infant plays use of parent as a secure base
stranger enters and talks to parent stranger anxiety
parent leaves, infant plays, stranger offers separation anxiety
parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort,…

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children who both seek and infant is fussy and weary in caregivers presence and cries a lot more.
reject intimacy and social infant explores less ­ difficulty using mother as secure base.
interaction respond to separation from their caregiver with immediate and intense
distress and actively avoids stranger.
on reunion,…

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predictive validity relevant research findings
demonstrated in the correlations between
early attachment types and later behaviour.
Hazan and Shaver and Prior and Glazer.

arguments for the strange situation arguments against the strange situation
It has provided a unique tool for measuring Not clear that it can be used in all…

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cross cultural similarities cross cultural differences
Ainsworth (1967) UGANDA. Naturalistic Grossmann and Grossmann (1991).
observation, observed universals in GERMANY. Infants tended to be classified
attachment behaviour. Infants in Uganda as insecurely rather than securely attached.
use mothers as secure base for exploration Different childbearing practices. Germany
and mothers of securely…

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positive criticisms negative criticisms
as long as researchers carried out the SS meta-analysis means that drawing together
exactly as it was first designed, the findings findings cannot be reliably compared
could be compared
truly cross cultural. Made sure to have a some samples are very small so not able to…

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4. cross cultural research
the researcher ­ research not always conducted by indigenous researcher. Even when
they are indigenous, they may belong to different cultures.
the tools/techniques used to measure behaviour ­ such tools/techniques are related to
cultural assumptions of the test/technique designer. The SS and its underlying
assumptions are…




A very colourful and highly useful set of notes!

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