As level: Religion & Science OCR Revision Sheets

Covers everything within Religion & Science for OCR spec incuding

-Big Bang theory

-Charles Lyell



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  • Created by: Rebecca
  • Created on: 11-05-13 13:50
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Essay Structure
Religion & Science
-Different methods of science and religion
Religion is based on faith and say they `just know' God exists
Augustine said `faith is to belief what you do not see and the reward of faith is to see what you
Science uses methods of observation, reason and experiment
Their conclusions have been repeatedly tested and use inductive arguments (rely on evidence)
-The Big Bang theory
Came from the observation that galaxies are moving away from us at great speed; expanding
Scientists realized if the reversed this observation we can conclude that there must have been a
time when matter was tightly packed together in a incredibly hot, small zone of `infinite
density' called a singularity
Using Einstein's theory of general relativity it was concluded that the matter had to have been
thrown outwards by a massive force about 14 billion years ago
Before the Big Bang there was no space or time because according to Stephen Hawkings these
were created by the Big Bang. This means there was no `before' the Big Bang
Some say that asking what caused the Big Bang is therefore meaningless but others say there
must be some kind of reason
Big Bang has strong evidence such as Edwin Hubble who observed the speeds of galaxies
moving away from us by measuring Red Shift which supports the idea that the universe is
The discovery of background radiation proves that in the beginning matter was extremely hot
-Creation and Science; how theologians differ in opinion when it comes to science
Rev. Dr. John Polkinghorne `Religion asks why and science asks how'.
He accepted Big Bang but said that it didn't stop him saying God created the world
Professor Fred Hoyle who was an atheist and astronomer admitted he found it hard to explain
some of his discoveries
Richard Dawkins says `evolution is not a faith position'
God of the Gaps
-Intelligent design; the universe is best explained if you accept there is a God
-Irreducible complexity
There are flaws in Darwin's model of evolution, some things need all their parts not evolution
Michael Behe wrote `Darwin's black box' and used irreducible complexity to show the world
must have been designed

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1. This conclusion is not good science
2. Existence of God cannot be verified
3. It's another `God of the Gaps' theory which relies on God instead of continuing to investigate
4. `Flying spaghetti monster' could be proved in the same way. This argument is just assuming
some supernatural cause as a lazy way of reaching conclusions
-Charles Lyell
First major challenge to the literal view of the Bible
Said the earth was formed gradually through natural and slow processes.…read more

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Creationism; the different types
Neo-creationism (aims to debate using non-religious terms ­ Intelligent design)
Young Earth Creationists (Bible is literal and historical fact)
Old Earth Creationists (World was created longer ago that Bible says)
Catastrophism (Great flood is responsible for earths appearance)
Gap Creationism (Gap between `In the beginning God created the sky and the earth' to `the
earth was empty and had no form')
-Main points most creationists make
Saying that nature is all there is also takes a lot of faith so Christians…read more


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