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AS Media Studies Key Concepts



This question asks you to reflect on who produced and financed the text, how
they have influenced the content, as well as the powers of external agencies (e.g.
regulatory bodies).


Manuel Alvarado lists seven features that shape media…

Page 2

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

orientated). If the text upholds the institution's core values then it will
proudly display its association through the use of a logo or ident.
Certain institutions also pride themselves on their high production values
(e.g. America's HBO), whereas some makers of lowbudget horror have

Page 3

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

the makers will release two versions with two different ratings, so that a
larger audience will be catered for.
The BBC has to abide by the decisions of the BBC Trust who can give
directions as to the content of BBC productions. If you read…

Page 4

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

act of dissent (to go against the prevailing ideas of society). For
example, a dissenting representation of suicide bombers would be to
show sympathy for their cause, if not their actions.
When considering a particular representation, think about the frame of
reference the audiences uses…

Page 5

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

Chinese market, often ensures that his newspapers represent Tibet in a
way that supports China's invasion.
Political parties or leaders can be represented in positive or negative
ways, depending on the political bias of the institution.
Due to Globalisation, western texts are dominating the world…

Page 6

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts



This question asks you to consider who the product is aimed at and how the text
appeals to the audiences' needs, wants and desires.


Producers of texts can use a variety of methodologies to identify their target
audience. Sometimes…

Page 7

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

Aspirers Want status and the esteem of others. Like status symbols,
designer labels etc. Live off credit and cash.
Succeeders People who have already got status and control.
Reformers Define themselves by their selfesteem and selffulfilment.

Youth Facts alternatively claimed to identify the following `types'…

Page 8

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

A different Dyer ­ Gillian Dyer (1988) ­ demonstrated how advertisers use
specific lines of appeal that tap into our desires and our fears. Images and
references put into advertising connect with our social needs.

Advertisements often feature some of the following: happy families rich,…

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

Media Forms/Language
(Codes & Conventions)


This question asks you to consider how a text has been constructed and why
editorial, presentational and stylistic choices have been made, as well as how
and what these may communicate to an audience.



The first…

Page 10

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AS Media Studies Key Concepts

Visual Elements
If you analyse the visual aspects of a film or television programme (i.e. the
lighting, set, props, camera angle etc.) you can talk about the
miseenscène (what you see onscreen)

Camera Angles
A close up is when a shot has been zoomed in,…


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