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Data is raw facts and figures which have no meaning. It is made up of alphanumeric
Information is processed data which is given meaning by its context.
Information = Data + Context + Structure + Meaning.
Method Advantages Disadvantages
Text Clear to understand not open to Need to be able to read.
misinterpretation. Need to understand the language.
Lots of detail.
Graphics Do not need language to understand Can be confusing if you do not know the symbols
an image. Same symbols can mean different things in
e.g. male and female. different countries
Sound No line of sight required to hear No good in large areas distortion of sound.
message. Specific language based.
Good for visually impaired people.
Video Lots of information conveyed can Linear if you do not see the beginning you may
use sound, images and text. not understand.
Not language dependent pictures. Problems if sound is in different language.
LED Can give out simple information Difficult to interpret.
on/off. Need to be able to see.
Very fast to activate.
Knowledge is the result of interpreting information which is then used to build a set of
Information is based on facts whereas knowledge is based on rules. These rules are based
on probabilities and not certainties.
Examples of data types: Boolean, Integer, Real, Text, Date/Time.
Direct Source: The individual using the data is the person that collected it. The data is only
used for one purpose e.g. Questionnaires, Interviews, Data Logging.
Indirect Source: Data collected for a particular reason but used for something else e.g.
Archives, Weather data.
Direct The source and collection method is May not get a large range of data.
source known and can be verified. Data many not be available location / time.
The exact data required can be
Can change the information being
collected in response to answers
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Indirect Large range of data available that could Don't know if any bias was placed on the collection.
source not have been collected directly. Cannot be certain of accuracy of the recording of
Data can be available from different data.
locations and time periods. May not have all the information about how, when
Analysis might already have been and where it was collected to make a valued opinion
completed on some of the data, on its usefulness.
someone else saving time.…read more
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Less storage space is required is data is shortened.
Searches and comparisons can be made quicker as less data is being stored.
There are only a limited number of codes which would make validation easier.
The codes can be easier to remember.
The precision of the data can be coarsened e.g. Light blue would be coded as Blue.
The user needs to know the codes being utilised in order to interpret the data.…read more
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Backup: Making separate copies of the data in case the original gets lost or corrupted.
Archive: Storing information for long periods of time. Removing the data from the original
medium and transferring it to a secondary storage.
Backups are necessary because:
Copies would be available in case of corruption.
If a virus gets into the system, another copy is available.
The data could be lost e.g. laptop left on train.
Archiving is necessary because:
There are legal reasons for archiving data.…read more