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Varun Pratap

Chapter 1
Data is raw facts and figures which have no meaning. It is made up of alphanumeric

Information is processed data which is given meaning by its context.
Information = Data + Context + Structure + Meaning.

Method Advantages Disadvantages
Text Clear to understand ­…

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Varun Pratap

Indirect Large range of data available that could Don't know if any bias was placed on the collection.
source not have been collected directly. Cannot be certain of accuracy of the recording of
Data can be available from different data.
locations and time periods. May not have all…

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Varun Pratap


Less storage space is required is data is shortened.
Searches and comparisons can be made quicker as less data is being stored.
There are only a limited number of codes which would make validation easier.
The codes can be easier to remember.


The precision of the…

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Varun Pratap

Backup: Making separate copies of the data in case the original gets lost or corrupted.

Archive: Storing information for long periods of time. Removing the data from the original
medium and transferring it to a secondary storage.

Backups are necessary because:

Copies would be available in case of…


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