AS - Graphics - How Paper Is Made

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AS-Level ­ Graphics ­ Paper
History:
Paper is mostly used for written communication and can be formed from wood pulp or even plant
fibre.
Originally it was made using tree bark and old fish netting, but 500 years later in 1150 Spain had built
a paper mill and by the end of the 15th century there were paper mills in Italy, France, Germany and
England. But by the end of the 16th century it was being made throughout Europe.
How is it made?
Paper is made up of connected fibres; these can come from a number of sources including cloth
rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and also, trees. Here is how they used to do it in simple steps:
1. Mix up vegetable fibres and cook them in hot water until the fibres are soft but not
dissolved.
2. Then, pass a screen-like material through the mixture, let the water drip off and/or
evaporate, and then squeeze or blot out additional water.
3. A layer of paper is left behind.
How is it made...now?
Here is an overview image and it shows
that most paper is now made by a
mechanical or chemical process.
They use cotton and linen rags for
creating such things as letter heads and
bank notes. The rags must be cut and
cleaned, boiled, and beaten before they
can be used by the paper mill.
Made By Richard Francis - http://getrevising.co.uk/members/richard_francis1

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Other materials used are:
Bleaches/dyes
Fillers ­ Chalk, Clay, Titanium oxide
Sizing's ­ Rosin, Gum, Starch
Now we will look into how its made now:
Making Pulp
There are multiple ways to convert wood logs to wood pulp, but in the mechanical process the logs
are tumbled down into drums to remove the bar, the logs are then sent to the grinders, which break
the wood down into pulp by pressing it between huge revolving slabs. The pulp is filtered to remove
any other objects.…read more

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