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Kant sought a fixed rule that would apply to anyone in any situation; in
other words an absolute moral law that was universal
To ensure it would not be clouded by emotion, he based it on the power of
reason, which he believed was universal
Since judgements about outcomes are difficult unless you can predict the
future accurately, Kant concentrated on a person's intention
He believed that everybody can reason how they ought to behave in a
situation, this he called `the moral law within'
People are free to act according to this moral law or choose to flout it
"Good will shines forth like a precious jewel" - Kant…read more

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An action is only good, when a person acts from a sense of good will
For example, a person might act out of kindness because it made them
feel good, or they wanted to appear virtuous to others, that would be
wrong because the only valid reason is duty…read more

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The only acceptable reason for putting good will into action, was a sense
of duty
Good will + duty = a moral action
A person acting from a sense of duty is clearly not being forced to…read more

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Because Kant was searching for an absolute moral rule, what he defined
as the hypothetical imperative was no use because these judgements
were not connected with morals and they were dependent on outcome
It is useful to remember that a hypothetical imperative will begin `If I do
this... then this will happen"
This is teleological…read more

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For Kant, the categorical imperative contains no uncertainty or
dependence on other factors
It says "You should do this"
It's a universal principle that could apply to everyone at all times
He broke it down into smaller rules, which he called maxims
If the action is represented as good in itself, then the imperative is
First formulation; Second formulation; Third formulation;
Universalisation Humans as ends kingdom of ends
For an action to be morally valid, the A moral code must treat humans The kingdom of ends is a society
person performing the act must not with respect and not just as a means made of people, all of whom are
carry out any act unless they believe to an end, humans must be the end entitled to be treated as ends
that in the same situation, all people in themselves and not as means
should act that way…read more

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