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English Language revision ­ glossary of key terms

Lexis ­ vocabulary system; meaning at word and phrase level
Grammar ­ structural relationship within and between sentences and utterances
Pragmatics ­ the ways in which social conventions and implied meanings are encoded in spoken and
written language.
Discourse ­ longer…

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Common and Proper nouns ­ a common noun is the name of an object, e.g. horse, table whereas
proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, days of the week, etc. and begin with a capital
Count and mass (noncount) nouns ­ count nouns refer to individual,…

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Ellipsis ­ where part of a sentence is omitted.
Contractions ­ e.g. `she'll', `it's'
Elision ­ joining together two words, e.g. `kinda'

Sentence Types
Interrogatives ­ questions
Imperatives ­ commands
Declarations ­ statements

The structure of conversation
Adjacency pairs ­ two-part exchange that follows a predictable pattern, e.g. a…

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The cooperative principle ­ H.P.Grice saw cooperation between the participants as the fundamental
principle underlying conversation. He argued that the conversations proceed on the assumption that
those taking part have common goals and agreed ways of achieving these goals.

The four maxims of conversation
Maxim of quality ­ be truthful,…

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Language and Gender
Semantic deterioration ­ the process by which negative connotations become attached to lexical items.
False generic ­ `man in the street', `mankind', `man gives birth to babies'.
Lexical asymmetry ­ pairs of words which seem to be equal but which aren't. Often there has been
semantic derogation…


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