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F.W. Taylor founded the scientific approach to management: Business decision making based on data that is researched and
tested quantitatively in order to improve efficiency of an organization.
He considered money to be the main factor that motivated workers; higher efficiency would generate higher profits and thus higher wages
Extreme division of labour
Payment by piecework
Tight management control
Elton Mayo's experiments led him to conclude that scientific management could not explain the importance of people's behavior in the
workplace and he provided the foundations for the Human Relations approach, which emphasizes human relationships in motivation.
Recognition, belonging, and security are more important than money in motivating employees.
· Employees should be seen as members of a group.
· Managers need to pay attention to individual's social needs.
· Increased results are due to greater communication and improved relations with informal groups.
Abraham Maslow's work on human needs has had a major influence on management thinking. His Hierarchy of Needs suggests
that people have similar types of needs from low level basic to the need for achievement.
Once a need was satisfied, the next level of unsatisfied need became a motivator, and if employees didn't have
access to gain those needs then it would lead to de-motivation.
Frederick Herzberg developed the Two-Factor theory of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
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He suggested some factors had the potential to give job satisfaction (Motivators) e.g. sense of achievement and responsibility and some
factors can reduce job satisfaction (Hygiene or maintenance factors) e.g. working conditions and pay.
One of the main policies that steamed from Herzberg's work is Job Enrichment:
The attempt to motivate workers by giving them opportunity to use their abilities and allowing them greater
independence and authority over the control of their work.…read more