AS Chemistry (NEW-2008) : IMPORTANT TESTS FOR DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Notes of reagents and positive tests of some functional groups.

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Test for a carbonyl
Reagents: 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH)
Observation with a positive test: Orange preciptate when added to a
carbonyl
Test for an aldehyde
Reagents: Fehlings solution 1 and 2
Observation with a positive test: Red precipitate when reagents are
warmed with an aldehyde
Test for an aldehyde
Reagents: Tollen's reagent (NaOH(aq) + AgNO3(aq) + dilute ammonia solution)
Observation with a positive test: Silver mirror with an aldehyde
Test for an alcohol
Reagents: PCl5 in dry conditions
Observation with a positive test: Steamy fumes of HCl gas which turns
damp blue litmus paper red
Test for a carboxylic acid
Reagents: NaHCO3(aq)
Observation with a positive test: CO2 gas which turns lime water milky
Test for an alcohol
Reagents: Na
Observation with a positive test: H2 gas

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