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Electronegativity and polarity
key definitions

electronegativity a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of
electrons in a covalent bond.
permanent dipole a small charge difference across a bond, that is formed from
a difference in electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
polar molecule a nonsymmetrical molecule,…

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a permanent dipole is shown by

a small positive charge (delta positive) on the more electropositive atom (in this case
the H atom)
a small negative charge (delta negative) on the more elctronegative atom (in this
case the Cl atom)

A NONSYMMETRICAL MOLECULE= A POLAR MOLECULE
(as the dipoles do…

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Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction between the bonded atom
and pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
Electronegativity is measured using the Pauling scale (which was invented
by the chemist Linus Pauling in 1932)
Electronegativity increases towards the top right of the periodic
table, with fluorine being the…

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There are many different types of bonds between molecules, these depend
upon the charges involved in these molecules.
















Main things to remember

Page 5

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more electrons= more electronegative
a permanent dipole = a small charge difference across a bond which is made from the differences
in electronegativity of the bonded atoms.
polar molecules are bonded by a polar covalent bond
non-polar molecules are bonded by a non-polar covalent bond
electronegativity definition
electronegativity is measured…

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