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Atomic Structure
Amount of Substance
Periodicity…read more

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Atomic Structure
Fundamental Particles
Mass Number and Isotopes
Mass Spectrometer
Electron Arrangement
Trends Ionisation Energies…read more

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Fundamental Particles
Atoms have a small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons
around which there are electrons.
Electron Atomic Relative Relative
Particle Mass Charge
+ neutron 1 0
proton 1 +1
electron negligible -1
Proton…read more

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Atoms of the same Mass number: this is the number of
protons and neutrons (A)
element always have the
same number of protons.
Isotopes are atoms of the
same element but with 4
different number of
neutrons. This gives rise
to different mass
2 He
Relative abundance is the
amount of each isotope as Atomic number: this is the
number of protons (Z)
the percentage for that
element occurring on the
Earth…read more

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Mass Spectrometer
A curved magnet
An Charged
The deflects the
electron plates The ions are detected
sample is positive ions. The
gun accelerate to produce a mass
put in via lighter ions are
ionises the positive spectrum
an injector deflected more
atoms ions
Ionisation acceleration deflection detection
·The mass spectrum gives the relative Example: Copper
masses of each isotope and the 69% of copper atoms have a
abundance of each isotope. relative mass of 63.
·The relative atomic mass is the 31% of copper atoms have a
weighted average mass of an atom of an relative mass of 65.
element compared with 1/12 of the mass The weighted average is calculated
of 12C. as follows:
·We can calculate this from mass (0.69 x 63) + (0.31 x 65) =63.62
spectra…read more

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